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Tidak, Radeon RX 6500 XT bukanlah penyelamat para penggila game. Ini bahkan bukan kartu “penggemar”, titik. AMD tahu bahwa ini bukan pemain yang spektakuler, tetapi mereka mendapatkan lebih banyak dari antarmuka memori 64-bit daripada yang pernah saya bayangkan.

Konteks penting dengan peluncuran ini, dan jika Anda menganggap ini sebagai kartu Esports yang benar-benar dapat Anda beli, jumlahnya cukup bagus. Melihat pengujian internal AMD untuk game seperti CS:GO, Fortnite, Overwatch, dll. (kebanyakan dengan rata-rata 100 – 300 FPS) memberikan gambaran yang baik tentang kartu yang, terlepas dari batas memori 4GB, baik-baik saja untuk game kompetitif pada 1080p.

Melihat hasil benchmark di atas menjadi jelas bahwa, ya, kartu ini sangat mampu memainkan game modern pada pengaturan 1080/sedang atau 1080/tinggi, dan pada kecepatan bingkai yang mulus. Tidak, Anda tidak akan memainkan apa pun yang terbaru pada pengaturan “ultra” kecuali jika Anda menyukai kecepatan bingkai “sinematik”, tetapi penting untuk membedakan kemampuan penawaran kelas bawah hanya dengan 4GB VRAM.

Teknologi penskalaan juga sempurna untuk produk seperti ini, memungkinkan kinerja yang lebih tinggi (dan penggunaan memori yang lebih rendah). Resolusi Super FidelityFX AMD dan Resolusi Super Radeon, serta Perangkat Lunak TriXX Sapphire sendiri, memungkinkan Anda untuk merender game pada resolusi yang lebih rendah, dan kemudian meningkatkannya ke resolusi asli monitor Anda.

BT menunjuk MD divisi komunikasi perusahaan tingkat lanjut, menandatangani kontrak ABB

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Telekomunikasi Inggris BT telah menunjuk Marc Overton sebagai direktur pelaksana unit Divisi X yang baru dibuat, bagian dari bisnis Perusahaan yang didirikan untuk mengkomersialkan pengembangan solusi pelanggan yang unik termasuk komponen seperti jaringan pribadi 5G, internet of things (IoT) dan komputasi tepi .

BT menganggap teknologi ini mampu memberikan fondasi untuk mendorong transformasi digital dari industri dengan pertumbuhan tinggi seperti perawatan kesehatan, transportasi, dan logistik, menempatkan perusahaan telekomunikasi di jantung pembangunan pemulihan ekonomi Inggris. Divisi X juga akan mengelola portofolio bisnis khusus BT.

Overton dikatakan membawa pengalaman manajemen senior dan pengembangan bisnis global yang substansial, serta pengetahuan luas di seluruh seluler, IoT, cloud, perangkat lunak sebagai layanan, dan layanan terkelola – yang semuanya merupakan area pertumbuhan strategis untuk divisi Perusahaan BT.

Sebelum bergabung dengan BT, Overton bekerja di Sierra Wireless, penyedia global IoT dan sistem jaringan perusahaan, di mana ia naik ke posisi chief solutions officer dan wakil presiden senior untuk EMEA dan APAC, di mana ia mengembangkan bisnis solusi dan layanan global tujuh kali lipat. antara 2017 dan 2020.

Sebelumnya, dia adalah direktur pelaksana, inovasi global, dan penjualan untuk startup West Coast Cisco Jasper, platform IoT terbesar di dunia. Di awal karirnya, Overton menjalankan EMEA untuk First Data (sekarang Fiserv), membantunya bertransformasi dari perusahaan pemrosesan pembayaran menjadi bisnis solusi pedagang. Dia juga memegang berbagai peran di EE dan Orange UK, di mana dia membangun bisnis MVNO dan IoT mereka.

Overton mengatakan: “Division X akan menjadi mesin pertumbuhan utama untuk bisnis Enterprise BT, memindahkannya dari telco ke techco dengan memperluas ke layanan yang berdekatan yang melampaui panggilan dan saluran tradisional. Saya sangat bersemangat untuk memimpin unit yang akan bertindak sebagai pusat inovasi bagi pelanggan Perusahaan kami. Kami akan fokus untuk mengubah teknologi baru seperti 5G, IoT, edge, dan AI menjadi solusi yang dapat kami skalakan, jual, dan yang akan mendorong pertumbuhan berkelanjutan.”

Rob Shuter, CEO bisnis Enterprise BT, menambahkan: “Pengalaman global Marc yang luas di seluruh platform seluler dan digital, bersama dengan kemampuannya yang telah terbukti untuk mengubah inovasi teknologi terbaru menjadi solusi pelanggan yang skalabel, menjadikannya kandidat ideal untuk memimpin Divisi X. Melalui Divisi X, kami akan bersama-sama menciptakan dan menghasilkan solusi yang bekerja secara langsung dengan mereka sehingga mereka dapat memanfaatkan teknologi terbaru secara maksimal.”

Saat mengumumkan penunjukan Overton, BT juga mengungkapkan bahwa mereka bekerja dengan perusahaan manufaktur global ABB untuk meningkatkan infrastruktur komunikasi yang dikelola secara internasional ke tingkat kinerja, pilihan, dan kelincahan baru untuk mendukung model operasi baru perusahaan.

Membangun perjanjian yang ada yang ditandatangani pada tahun 2014, di mana BT mengkonsolidasikan dan mengoptimalkan infrastruktur komunikasi internasional ABB, perusahaan telekomunikasi sekarang akan bekerja dengan tim sistem informasi ABB untuk mengubah infrastruktur jaringan untuk menciptakan platform inti yang berkelanjutan, tangguh, dan aman yang menampilkan platform yang sangat otomatis dan layanan terkelola berbasis data.

Infrastruktur komunikasi akan menghubungkan orang, perangkat, dan mesin di lebih dari 600 fasilitas di 60 negara. Menggunakan teknologi jaringan yang ditentukan perangkat lunak terbaru, itu akan menawarkan ABB pilihan opsi konektivitas untuk setiap situs, termasuk akses 5G.

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Pengujian mereka mencakup berbagai tolok ukur sintetis, tetapi hasil aplikasilah yang lebih menarik. 7-Zip adalah contoh yang baik, di mana Anda melihat DDR5, di hampir semua frekuensi yang bahkan melebihi DDR4 terbaik selama kompresi tetapi jauh tertinggal saat dekompresi. Cinebench menyukai frekuensi yang lebih tinggi, seperti halnya Handbrake. Hasil permainan mereka juga mirip dengan tes sebelumnya, pada resolusi yang lebih rendah DDR5 memang akan membantu meningkatkan kinerja Anda, namun jika Anda menjalankan resolusi yang lebih tinggi, Anda dapat mengharapkan kinerja ekstra satu atau tiga frame.

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Hoosier Lottery – Positive Game Experience Using A Mathematical Strategy

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Hoosier Lottery wants you to enjoy positive experiences from playing the games it offers.

Who would not want to enjoy playing the lottery, anyway? So, we could all agree to that.

Yet the more pressing question is, “how does one enjoy playing the lottery?”

Entertainment comes at a price and so do lottery games.

When you play the lottery, expect to have more losses than winnings.

Once you have amassed significant losses, it is almost impossible to win your money back.

It is as Indiana’s state lottery says. Losses are like too short haircuts that are hard to get back.

Therefore, the most reasonable solution is to play with decreased instances of losing.

This is where the use of a mathematical game plan for playing lotteries will prove helpful.

You need to develop a math-based game plan for enjoying draw games from Hoosier Lottery.

Keep reading and let us learn together.

Play Hoosier Lottery with a fitting method

Cooking is an example of an entertaining activity for some people.

Suppose you need to stir-fry vegetables in a pan, but you only have a spoon nearby. Would you just use the spoon instead of looking for a wok spatula in the cupboard?

The choice is yours. It is convenient to use the spoon since it is already on the counter. It would require you more effort to look for a wok spatula since it is inside the cupboard.   

However, understand that your chosen cooking tool may affect the food you are cooking and even your safety. The correct tool allows you to cook your food well and keep you away from harm.

Stir frying with a spoon might result to uncooked or less tasty foods. You would unlikely stir enough times because your hand will feel hot since the spoon is too short. There is no option for flipping the vegetables by yielding the pan because it is beyond your cooking skills.

Everything we do becomes a lot better when we use the right tool. This includes playing the lottery games.

Lottery players use different methods when choosing numbers to make combinations. The most common method is tracking hot, cold and overdue numbers using statistics of past draw results.

For instance, Hoosier Lottery has a specific web page where players could see the frequency of drawing numbers for a specific draw game.

Below, you can see three charts illustrating the frequency of numbers for CA$H 5 from 11/4/2012 to 1/27/2021.

These dough charts show the frequency of numbers for CA$H 5 from 11/4/2012 to 1/27/2021. Number 1 was drawn 341 times; 2 was drawn 336 times; 3 was drawn 362; 4 was drawn 341 times; 5 was drawn 332 times; 6 was drawn 344 times; 7 was drawn 365 times; 8 was drawn 346 times; 9 was drawn 375 times; 10 was drawn 387 times; 11 was drawn 343 times; 12 was drawn 332 times; 13 was drawn 394 times; 14 was drawn 355 times; 15 was drawn 358 times; 16 was drawn 352 times; 17 was drawn 378 times; 18 was drawn 345 times; 19 was drawn 364 times; 20 was drawn 358 times; 21 was drawn 356 times; 22 was drawn 355 times; 23 was drawn 339 times; 24 was drawn 330 times; 25 was drawn 354 times; 26 was drawn 352 times; 27 was drawn 377 times; 28 was drawn 357 times; 29 was drawn 363 times; 30 was drawn 367 times; 31 was drawn 362 times; 32 was drawn 349 times; 33 was drawn 351 times; 34 was drawn 388 times; 35 was drawn 376 times; 36 was drawn 353 times; 37 was drawn 362 times; 38 was drawn 323 times; 39 was drawn 362 times; 40 was drawn 287 times; 41 was drawn 282 times; 42 was drawn 142 times; 43 was drawn 148 times; 44 was drawn 144 times; and 45 was drawn 148 times.

This feature offers a big help for players who rely on statistics in selecting numbers. Yet, can statistics really help determine the numbers that will appear in the succeeding draws?

A seller wants to hold a raffle draw to promote her business. Thus, she prepared a simple raffle game for her customers. Inside a red box are 8 balls in blue, green and orange.

Each color represents small, but exciting prizes for her customers who meet the minimum orders. Blue is for 50% discount, green is for 30% discount and orange is for a free item.

Cassandra is one customer who met the minimum order requirements, so she is eligible for the raffle game. She prefers to get a free item. She needs to get an orange ball.

Cassandra does not know how many balls of each color are there in the box. This suggests that she may only do statistical sampling to determine her chances to get an orange ball.

Yet, if the seller discloses there are 3 orange, 2 blue and 3 green balls, Cassandra could perform probability calculations. This way, she would know the likelihood of her getting an orange ball.

This image illustrates the randomness of the lottery. Streaks and dots of white and gray suggest ways on how players can take advantage of the game.

The lottery draw is a random process and the image above illustrates this. It provides ideas on how a player may avoid being wrong as he plays the lottery. Through the randomness of lotteries, probability calculations are possible.

The second scenario is an example of a random, yet deterministic event. Such is an innate characteristic of lottery games with finite structures. Lottery games are finite because players know the number of balls to pick from a given number set.

The Hoosier Lottery Ca$h5, for example, has 1 to 45 balls from which a player should select 5 numbers to make a combination. This means that a player can perform probability calculations to determine his likelihood of winning. Therefore, statistics is not an appropriate tool for playing the lottery.

Never use statistics in lotteries because it will never work as an appropriate tool to analyze games. Some state lotteries, like Indiana, provide data for frequency of drawing numbers. Yet, you now know that statistics will not work as a tool to accurately determine winning odds.

Why and How, you might ask?

Statistical sampling involves just a sample or a small part of the large data. Thus, the conclusion it will give would not be accurate because of the limited amount of data it considered.

Will you still insist on playing for cold or overdue numbers?

There might be seldom and frequently drawn numbers during the first few draws of a lottery game. Yet, as the number of draws increases, the frequency of these numbers will converge around a comparable amount. This is the conclusion brought forth by the law of large numbers. See a visual analysis here to know more about this law.

Do not misunderstand that this law will allow you to predict exactly which numbers will win next. Rather, the law of large numbers allows you to foresee the future general behavior of the random lottery game. The actual results of the game will agree with the probability calculations.

Thus, you could find ways on how to be wrong less for most of the draws. Mathematical information truly helps, but only if you have accurate and complete information.

Playing lotteries with a precise game plan, use a complete mathematical analysis that involves not only probability but also odds.

Which ratio should you look at when playing the lottery?

Probability and odds are, in formula, both ratios.

Should you favor only one or consider them both for an accurate mathematical lotto strategy?

Probability in lottery is the ratio of the number of favorable combinations over the total number of possible combinations.

How likely are you going to win using the combination you play for? This is what probability is about.

To play in a lottery draw game, you need to buy a ticket with a playable combination. Suppose you chose 1-2-3-4-5 as your combination in a Ca$h 5 game that has 1,221,759 possible combinations.

Using the formula above, the probability of you winning in Ca$h 5 by playing 1-2-3-4-5 is 1 in 1,221,759. This probability remains the same for each of the possible combinations. Therefore, your only way of improving your probability of winning is by buying more tickets with different combinations.

Some people mistakenly suppose that they always have a chance against all the possible combinations. So, they could just choose whatever numbers they please. They throw away the possibility of winning by carefully creating the most lucrative combinations.

Odds in lottery are the ratio of favorable combinations over the unfavorable combinations.

How many ways of winning do I have with the combination I played for? This is what odds can help determine.

Odds refer to the ratio of favorable combinations over unfavorable combinations. Hence, it is also the ratio of success to failure.

Probability lets you think you have just one chance to win for every combination you use. Odds, on the other hand, allow you to know which combination has more ways of winning and fewer ways of losing. How? Allow me to explain.

For example, you marked the numbers 1-2-3-4-5 on the first matrix area of a Ca$h 5 playslip. This combination will give you one probability to win.

Then, you also marked 6-7-8-9-10 on the second matrix of the playslip. This second combination will also give you one probability to win.

All combinations have equal probabilities of winning. Thus, two distinct combinations will give you 2 probabilities to win.

Nonetheless, you do not know if these 2 distinct combinations will take you closer to winning the jackpot. This is where odds enter as a ratio worthy of your attention.

By computing the odds of a combination, you will know how many ways of winning and losing it can provide. Therefore, you can choose combinations that can cut down your failures.

Lotto games have hundred thousands to millions of combinations (based on a game). In terms of probability, we regard these combinations as the same since they each offer the same probability of winning.

In terms of odds, we regard these combinations differently according to their respective combinatorial groups. Combinatorial groups in lotteries have different ways of losing and winning.

A player needs to consider the odds through careful selection of the best combinatorial group. This enables him to pick one with a smaller amount of losing as compared to other combinatorial groups.

To play well in lottery games, consider both ratios instead of only one.

Most players consider only their probability to win. Thus, they turn to methods like statistical tracking because this is what they have adapted to. While ratio of success to failure might seem unconventional for traditional lotto players, it can improve your games. 

Remember

Lottery combinations have different ratios of success to failure. Controlling the lottery’s probability and beating its odds are impossible. But to win the lottery, you must pick the combinations with the best ratio.

Any discerning player will take advantage of this knowledge and the ability to understand ratios in making a better decision. He may choose not to play if he thinks his odds are not favorable.

In the succeeding sections, I will explain to you why and how you must consider odds and probability for a well-thought-of strategy.

Let us tackle the odds or ratio of success to failure first.

It’s time to learn about lottery’s combinatorial groups.

Lotteries have underlying probabilities that no one can control and odds that are hard to beat. Nonetheless, this does not mean you may only play while thinking you may either win or lose. This is a poor mindset to have as a player seeking to win or as someone looking for gaming entertainment.

This image illustrates the difference between numbers and combination. In a lottery game, a player must pick a certain quantity of numbers from the number of balls. For example, Ca$h 5 of Hoosier Lottery has 1 to 45 balls and a player need to make a combination with 5 numbers from these balls.

Numbers and combinations are basic components of lottery draw games. In playing lottery games, you need to know how many balls there are in the game and the quantity of numbers to select.

Ca$h 5 has 1 to 45 balls, from which a player may pick 5 numbers to create a combination.

When playing Hoosier Lotto Plus, you need 6 numbers from 1 to 46 to have a playable combination.

In Cash4Life, the main combination needs 5 numbers from balls 1 to 60. A playable combination requires an extra number from the balls 1 to 4.

In each lottery draw, the balls inside the drum have equal chances of being picked. There is no factor that will favor one or few balls over the others. Every ball has the same shape, size, weight and texture.

I said earlier that combinations have varying ratios of success to failure. This difference comes from the fact that combinatorial groups each have a distinct composition.

Composition refers to the quantity of odd or even and low or high numbers that a combination contains. A single number has no significance unless it is in a group of numbers. These numbers altogether give the combination its critical composition.

Knowing a combination’s composition, you could compute for the number of ways it will make you win and lose. This makes you aware about your options of which combinatorial groups to focus on and to avoid.

Remember

Whether you play with a 3-low-2-high pattern, your probability to win does not change. However, your choice of a 3-low-2-high combination lets you have a better ratio of success to failure than a 5-high combination. This means you can play with more ways to win and lesser ways to lose.

Therefore, combinatorial groups in lotteries give you crucial factors and information to use for developing your game plan. You could create combinations following the patterns of best combinatorial groups.

Let us look into it through examples.

In the Ca$h 5 game of Hoosier Lottery, the best combination you can use must have 3-odd and 2 even numbers. This pattern offers 409,101 ways of winning and 812,658 ways of failing. Avoid combinations with 5 even numbers because this has the worst ratio. It gives 26,334 ways of winning and 1,195,425 ways of failing.

In Ca$h 5, avoid using combinations with 5 even numbers. This pattern gives 26,334 ways of winning and 1,195,425 ways of failing.

The best patterns to use when creating combinations is 3-odd-2-even. It offers 409,101 ways to win and 812,628 ways to fail.

Julia has $10, and she wanted to play the Ca$h 5 game. She has no specific strategy for choosing numbers, so she just randomly marked numbers on the playslip. Her resulting combination is 4-10-18-22-30.

Data from the table above show that it has a 5-even pattern. Unfortunately, this is the worst pattern to use. Julia could probably play better if she considers the information from this article.

She could play for 7-14-21-28-35. This has a 3-odd-2-even pattern that has more ways of winning and fewer ways of losing than 5-even.

This 7-14-21-28-35 is a combination with non-random pattern. While it achieved the purpose of getting 3-odd-2-even combination, it is not a method that we recommend players to use.

Keep reading below so I could explain better why players need to avoid non-random combinations. The point here is that you must analyze the lotto combination you want to use even before paying for a ticket.

Composition of combinations matters. You need to have the right amount of the best odd and even numbers in your combination.

However, composition is not only about odd or even. Composition also involves the low and high numbers in the combination.

Let us look at another example and this time with the low-high choices for Hoosier Lotto +Plus.

The best choice for Hoosier Lotto +Plus is 3-low-3-high. It has 3,136,441 ways to win and 6,230,378 ways to fail. The worst pattern choice is 6-high with 100,947 ways to win and 9,265,872 ways to fail.

Tristan has no particular method for picking numbers. He simply used the numbers he saw on the car plates of vehicles he came across during his drive. This gave him the combination 28-33-35-40-45-46.

Referring to the table above, we could say that Tristan should have looked for more car plates instead of spending money on this combination.

Its composition of all high number makes it one of the worst combinations for Hoosier Lotto. Perhaps a better combination that Tristan could play is a more balanced combination which contains 3 low and 3 high numbers.

About combinatorial analysis

Combinatorial mathematics allows you to group anything, such as numbers in a lottery game. The numbers on lottery balls are merely symbols for things that you can put into groups, like fruits, flowers, objects, behaviors and more. We use odd, even, low and high to establish a pattern necessary for mathematical calculations.

With such knowledge about combinatorial mathematics, you could discern which options are best to use. Therefore, you could make the most out of your ability to decide appropriately on specific conditions.

This is the guiding principle of Lotterycodex. It applies combinatorial and probabilistic theory to segregate good from bad and best from the worst combinations. This way, you will know exactly which combinations offer the best ratio of success to failure.

Through combinatorial groups, a player can see and choose which ones are most favorable for him. The inequality of odds among these combinatorial groups opens a door of opportunity. This is an opportunity to use a mathematical strategy based on the best ratio of success to failure.

Lottery games share some similarities, since two or more games may have the same pick size or number field. Yet, it is of utmost importance that you learn more about a game you wish to play. This is how you will devise the succeeding steps in your game plan.

Why don’t we look first at the basic combinatorial groups of Ca$h 5 from Hoosier Lottery? Keep reading below to understand how to play the game with a mathematical approach.

Let’s look at Ca$h 5 and its basic combinatorial groups.

This is the only game from Hoosier Lottery with a rolling jackpot. The jackpot prize starts at $75,000; then grows by at least $5,000 per day until somebody wins. Its drawings occur daily.

One ticket costs $1 and an extra $1 if you wish to play with the EZmatch option. As I have mentioned, this game requires a combination of 5 numbers selected from 1 to 45. This gives us 1,221,759 possible combinations in total.

Given that it has 1-45 balls, the odd and even number sets for Ca$h 5 are

Odd = 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,35,37,39,41,43,45 
Even = 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,30,32,34,36,38,40,42,44 
The 6 odd-even patterns in Hoosier Lottery Ca$h 5 are 5-0dd, 4-odd-1-even, 3-odd-2-even, 2-odd-3-even, 1-odd-5-even and 6-even. The 3-odd-2-even has 409,101 possible combinations, 0.3348459065986 probability value and 33 estimated occurrences in 100 draws.

The table above shows there are 6 basic combinatorial groups for this game, based on the odd-even composition.

The 5-even group, as I have mentioned earlier, is the worst choice of odd-even basic combinatorial group for Ca$h 5. It offers just 26,334 ways to win and 1,195,425 ways to lose. The ratio of success to failure that you will have with this pattern is 1 to 45.

Even the 5-odd group could also not provide noteworthy winning odds. It has 33,649 ways to win and 1,188,110 ways to lose. So, the ratio of success to failure of 5-odd group is 1 to 35.

The 1-odd-4-even group has 168,245 ways to win and 1,053,514 ways to fail. It offers a 1 to 6 ratio of success to failure. Meanwhile, the 4-odd-2-even gives 194,810 ways to win and 1,026,949 ways to lose. Thus, the ratio it offers is 1 to 5.

The 3-odd-2-even and 2-odd-3-even groups share about the same rounded up ratios of success to failure. However, 2-odd-3-even has about 20,000 more ways of losing than 3-odd-2-even.

Comparing 5-even to 3-odd-2-even, the latter can provide over 15 times more occurrences in 100 draws than the former. The best choice 3-odd-2-even could occur once every 3 attempts. The worst choice 5-even could occur once every 46 attempts.

Why would a clever player focus on creating combinations with 3-odd-2-even? He will have more ways of winning and fewer ways of losing with such pattern.

Basic combinatorial analysis is incomplete with just the odd-even composition. You must also look at the low-high composition of combinations.

To get the low and high number sets of a lotto game, divide the number field into two. For Ca$h 5, these sets are

Low = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23
High = 24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45 
Hoosier Ca$h 5 has 6 low-high patterns. These are 5-0dd, 4-low-1-high, 3-low-2-high, 2-low-3-high, 1-low-5-high and 6-high. The 3-low-2-high has 409,101 possible combinations, 0.3348459065986 probability value and 33 estimated occurrences in 100 draws.

There are also 6 groups with low and high numbers for this game, as shown in the table above. The group with lowest number of possible combinations is 5-high. With 1,195,425 ways to lose using this pattern, you can expect it to occur only twice in every 100 draws.

Offering 7,315 more ways to win is the 5-low group. However, this is still not a good choice. It can give you only 3 opportunities to match the winning combination in every 100 draws.

A combination with an average ratio is one with either 1-low-4-high or 4-low-1-high pattern. The 1-low-4-high pattern may appear 14 times in 100 draws.

A 4-low-1-high combination may match the winning combination 16 times in 100 draws. This means you may lose 84-86 times in 100 draws using either pattern.

You could do well in 100 draws with either a 2-low-3-high or 3-low-2-high combination. A 3-low-2-high combination might appear 33 times, while the 2-low-3-high may appear 32 times.

Nonetheless, do not forget that we are looking for a pattern that can reduce the number of losses when playing. Here, 3-low-2-high can further reduce the ways of losing by 19,481 than a 2-low-3-high.

The best choice of low-high pattern in the Ca$h 5 game is 3-low-2-high. With 409,101 ways to win, your ways to fail are 812,658. The worst choice is 5-high. You could lose 1,195,425 ways and win 26,334 ways.

Summing it up, the best low-high pattern in a Ca$h 5 game is 3-low-2-high. It offers almost 16 times more ways to win than a 5-high pattern. In 100 draws, you could lose 32 more times with a 5-high than with a 3-low-2-high.

Remember

It makes no difference in your probability to win whether you choose a 5-even or a 3-odd-2-even combination. Yet, it makes a big difference in your ratio of success to failure if you play a combination with 3-odd-2-even pattern instead of 5-even pattern. The former has a higher ratio of success to failure than the latter. In Ca$h 5, a 3-odd-2-even combination gives 812,658 ways to lose, while a 5-even combination has 1,195,425 ways to lose.

Now, how should you incorporate this knowledge in your games?

Eduard is an avid lotto player, but uses just one combination every time he plays. His combo for Ca$h 5 is 23-25-30-31-36.

Let us analyze this combination based on basic combinatorial group.

23-25-30-31-36 has the best odd-even ratio because of its 3-odd-2-even pattern.

Yet, this combination has the worst ratio in terms of low-high combinatorial analysis. It follows a 5-high pattern. 

Combinatorial analysis could prompt Eduard to change to a better combination. He ought to realize to change some numbers in order to get the best ratios from odd-even and low-high groups.

One new combination he could use is 11-13-15-30-36. This new combination follows the 3-low-2-high and 3-odd-2-even patterns, which are the best choices for Ca$h 5.

Awareness about the ratio of success to failure of combinations can make a significant difference in one’s lotto game decisions. A player who has been buying tickets for years might discover that he has been wasting money all along.

He has been blindingly playing for a combination that actually has a low ratio of success to failure. How about your favorite Ca$h 5 combination? What are its ratios of success to failure after analyzing its odd-even and low-high composition?

Basic combinatorial analysis lets you understand that composition of combinations make an impact in your games. Through this knowledge, you will decide if you can stick to your favorite combination or change numbers.

This holds true also for Hoosier Lotto +Plus.

Discover the basic combinatorial groups for Hoosier Lotto +PLUS

Hoosier Lotto +PLUS is a game with 1 to 46 balls from which you must select 6 numbers. One play costs $2. You may pay an additional $1 for the +Plus option, to play the same combination for the second draw for the game. 

While the odds are the same for this +Plus draw, the prizes differ from those of the first draw. For example, the estimated jackpot for the January 23, 2021 draw was $4.2 million. Playing with +Plus lets you win only $1,000,000 if you match all 6 numbers in the second draw.

Indiana State Hoosier Lottery makes its native draw game more exciting by automatically adding a random multiplier to every play. The 1x, 2x, 3x, 5x, or 10x multiplier applies only to non-jackpot prizes of first and second draws.

Hoosier Lotto +Plus has draws on Wednesdays and Thursdays.

The odd and even sets are

Odd = 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,35,37,39,41,43,45 
Even = 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,30,32,34,36,38,40,42,44,46
Hoosier Lotto +Plus has 7 odd-even patterns. These patterns are 6-odd, 5-odd-1-even, 4-odd-2-even, 3-odd-3-even, 2-odd-4-even, 1-odd-5-even and 6-even. The 3-odd-3-even has 3,136,441 possible combinations, 0.3348459065986 probability value and 33 estimated occurrences in every 100 draws.

There are 9,366,819 possible combinations in total for this game. Each combination has its unique composition that determines its ratio of success to failure.

A player can create a combination containing all 6 even or all odd numbers. He will have 100,947 ways to win using either pattern, but the number of ways he could lose is 9,340,485.

A good option he has is to make a combination following 1-odd-5-even or 5-odd-1-even pattern. This will give him 773,927 ways to win, but 8,592,892 ways to lose.

He has more ways to win with a 2-odd-4-even or 4-odd-2-even combination. He could have 2,240,315 ways to win and 7,126,504 ways to lose if he does.

For a 6/46 game, such as Hoosier Lotto from Hoosier Lottery, there is an option superior to all these. A player can have 3,136,441 ways to win and 6,230,378 ways to lose if he plays for a combination having a balanced composition of odd and even numbers.

The best choice of combination in the Hoosier Lotto +Plus game contains 3 odd and 3 even numbers. This offers 3,136,441 ways to win and 6,230,378 ways to fail. The worst choice of combination contains 6 even numbers that gives 100,947 ways to win and 9,265,872 ways to fail.

Thus, the best choice of combination when playing Hoosier Lotto +Plus is the 3-odd-3-even. Its ratio of success to failure is 1 to 2. The worst combination choice is 5-even or 5-odd, whose ratio of success to failure is 1 to 92. The best choice has 46 times better ratio of success to failure than the worst choice.

The 3-odd-3-even provides 5 times better ratio of success to failure when compared to 1-odd-5-even or 5-odd-1-even.

In every 100 draws, a 3-odd-3-even pattern could give you 9 times more opportunities to match the winning combination than a 2-odd-4-even.

Do not let it slip your mind that a combination’s composition also involves how many low and high numbers it contains.

In this Hoosier Lottery draw game, the low and high number sets are:

Low = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23 
High = 24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46

The low-high number sets that players could choose from are:

Hoosier Lotto +Plus has 7 low-high patterns. These are 6-low, 5-low-1-high, 4-low-2-high, 3-low-3-high, 2-low-4-high, 1-low-5-high and 6-high. The 3-low-3-high has 3,136,441 possible combinations, 0.3348459065986 probability value and 33 estimated occurrences in every 100 draws.

From the data of our table above, you could see there are 7 patterns a player could base his combination on.

Patterns 6-high and 6-low offer the least number of ways to win and can appear just once out of 100 draws.

The 1-low-5-high and 5-high-1-low is considerably still a bad choice. This is despite offering 7 times more winning ways and 7 more occurrences than the 6-high or 6-low.

It is because there is a better option you can use than the 1-low-5-high and/or 5-high-1-low. A good choice of pattern is 2-low-4-high or 4-low-2-high. Either of these patterns provides 22 times more ways to win and 23 more occurrences than 6-high or 6-low.

Notwithstanding the good ratio from 2-low-4-high or 4-low-2-high, 3-low-3-high offers the best ratio of all. Out of 100 draws, 3-low-3-high can provide you with 33 opportunities to match the winning combination. It also has 1.5 times fewer ways of losing than 6-high or 6-low.

How do you apply this in your actual games?

Rachelle discovered a number generator while browsing the web. This number generator allowed her to enter how many numbers to pick from her number field she chose. 

Thus, when her mother asked her for a 6-number combination to use in the Hoosier Lotto +Plus, she used this number generator. Her mom has been playing with 25-39-36-34-33-27 combination for 2 years already. Is this combination only a waste of money or should Rachelle’s mom continue playing with it?

25-39-36-34-33-27 has 4-odd-2-even pattern, which is only a good choice of odd-even pattern.

It also follows a 6-high pattern, which has the worst ratio to offer among all low-high groups.

Therefore, this combination has been a waste of money. Rachelle should have run the generator several more times so she could have picked a better combination, like 17-42-45-7-18-30. This one has 3-odd-3-even and 3-low-3-high, which are both best choices for their respective categories of combinatorial groups.

Better yet, since Rachelle is already surfing the web, she could have read further about how to mathematically play the lottery.

Basic combinatorial analysis lets you see the worth of a combination. Then, you decide how you want to manipulate its composition so you can achieve a final combination with best ratio.

Playing the lottery should be about making the best decisions, although the probability of a random draw is unchangeable. It should be about weighing your options so you can deal with the lottery odds in a way that is most favorable to you.

Next, we look at the basic combinatorial groups in Cash4Life. Can combinatorial analysis also help you weigh your options well? Find out below.

Know the basic combinatorial groups in Cash4Life.

Cash4Life is a multi-state lottery game that 9 US states currently offer. Indiana is one of these 9 states so you can play this game at Hoosier Lottery retail stores and mobile app.

One play costs $2. To play, select 5 numbers from 1 to 60 and then a Cash Ball number from 1 to 4. There are daily draws for this game.

The jackpot prize to win when you match all 5 numbers and the Cash Ball is $1,000 a day for life. The second top prize for matching only the 5 numbers is $1,000 a week for life.

The Cash Ball makes it more difficult to win the jackpot because the total number of combinations increased. A different analysis also applies when there is an extra ball like this to consider.

However, don’t you think that winning the second top prize is in itself already awesome? Thus, let us see how to use a mathematical strategy that is based on combinatorics and probability can help you.

A 5/60 game has the total possible combinations of 5,461,512.

This number field provides players with the number sets

Odd = 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,35,37,39,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59 
Even = 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,30,32,34,36,38,40,42,44,46,48,50,52,54,56,58,60 
The Hoosier Lottery Cash4Life has 6 odd-even patterns. These are 5-0dd, 4-odd-1-even, 3-odd-2-even, 2-odd-3-even, 1-odd-5-even and 6-even. The 3-odd-2-even or 2-odd-3-even has 1,766,100possible combinations, 0.32337198929527 probability value and 32 estimated occurrences in 100 draws.

Thus, players can create combinations based on any of the 6 odd-even patterns, shown above.

You can make a combination containing all odd or all even numbers. Such a combination is easy to remember and could even create an aesthetic pattern on a playslip. However, this pattern can present only 142,506 possible combinations.

It means that the number of ways you can lose with this pattern is 5,319,006. The number of ways to lose is 37 times higher than the number of ways to win. This emphasizes that playing lottery games will give you more losses than winnings.

The only viable solution is to minimize the number of losses by weighing your options well. Hence, it is worthwhile to study combinatorial groups in lotteries.

Since you know that 5-odd or 5-even pattern offers a horrible ratio of success to failure, look for another pattern to use.

Will you have a better game with a 1-odd-4-even or 4-odd-1-even? You probably would play it better because this gives you 679,644 more possible combinations to use. It also offers about 7 times better ratio of success to failure than 5-odd or 5-even pattern.

Nonetheless, let us not forget the goal of a mathematical strategy. This goal is to find a way you can be less wrong for most draws. There is yet another option to look at and this is to use a 3-odd-2-even or 2-odd-3-even pattern.

With this, you have 1,766,100 ways to win. This offers twice as many ways to win than the 1-odd-4-even or 4-odd-1-even.

In the Cash4Life game, the worst combination contains all 5 even numbers. It has 142,506 ways to win and 5,319,006 ways to fail. The best combination contains 3-odd and 2 even numbers. It offers 1,766,100 ways to win and 3,695,412 ways to lose.

Therefore, your best choice of combination when playing Cash4Life must follow the 3-odd-2-even or 2-odd-3-even pattern. As shown in the table above, it presents 32 opportunities to match the winning combination out of 100 draws.

This is almost 11 times higher than the number of occurrences of a 5-odd or 5-even pattern. The best choice also provides twice as many occurrences in 100 draws as the 1-odd-4-even or 4-odd-1-even pattern.

Let’s also look at the low-high combinatorial groups for a better mathematical approach.

Low = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30
High = 31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60

These are the low and high number sets in Cash4Life.

The Hoosier Lottery Cash4Life has 6 low-high patterns. These are 5-0dd, 4-low-1-high, 3-low-2-high, 2-low-3-high, 1-low-5-high and 6-high. The 3-low-2-high or 2-low-3-high has 1,766,100possible combinations, 0.32337198929527 probability value and 32 estimated occurrences in 100 draws.

There are also 6 patterns for the low and high composition of combinations in Cash4Life.

Giving you only 3 occurrences every 100 draws is a 5-high or 5-low combination. Thus, you will have just one winning opportunity if you play every day for about a month.

The middle choice for this game is a 1-low-4-high or 4-low-1-high combination. With this pattern, you have 4,639,362 ways to fail. It gives 5 times more occurrences in 100 draws than the 5-low or 5-high pattern.

There is something better than the 1-low-4-high or 4-low-1-high combination, and this is a 2-low-3-high or 3-high-2-low combination. With 1,766,100 ways to win, your ways to fail are 3,695,412.

You will have 943,950 fewer ways to fail with a 3-low-2-high or 2-low-3-high than a 1-low-4-high or 4-low-1-high. The 3-low-2-high or 2-low-3-high also has 1,623,594 fewer ways of failure than a 5-low or 5-high combination.

How can a player make use of this knowledge?

Albert usually refers to overdue numbers when playing the lottery. An online tool he uses showed that the most overdue numbers 34, 56, 58, 45 and 47. Therefore, he bought 10 consecutive draws for the combination 34-45-47-56-58 and Cash Ball 3.

What would you say to Albert if he asks you for advice?

34-45-47-56-58 has a 2-odd-3-even pattern, which makes it an ideal choice, odd-even composition-wise.

However, 34-45-47-56-58 has a 5-high pattern, which is the worst choice in Cash4Life.

You explain to Albert what the image below shows.

A 3-low-2-high pattern is the best choice in Cash4Life. It has 1,766,100 ways to win and 3,695,412 ways to fail with this pattern. The worst choice is a 5-high because of its 142,506 ways to win and 5,319,006 ways to fail.

In Cash4Life, the combination to avoid is one that contains 5 high (or 5 low) numbers because this will occur only once in 38 attempts.

You could suggest that he uses 5-7-28-56-58 so that his combination will have numbers from the low set. This makes his combination follow a 3-low-2-high pattern that yields a higher ratio of success to failure.

This is the best pattern in Cash4Life. It can occur 32 times in 100 draws or once in 4 attempts.

Our examples in all three games show us just how we can make the most out of every game. Knowing the ratio of success to failure also helps us get the value for the money we spend on tickets.

The mathematical approach gives an accurate and precise manner for choosing the best combinations in lottery games. However, as our examples also showed, there can be contradictions from odd-even and low-high combinatorial analyses.

Such is an obstruction that you must overcome, so as not to render your efforts useless. You may use advanced combinatorial analysis.

Advanced combinatorial analysis can solve inconsistencies.

You heard it is also good to use cold numbers for lottery combinations. Some claim they are the ones that will soon show up in draws.

Thus for Ca$h 5, you picked 41-42-43-44-45 because these numbers have the least number of draws from the data on the Hoosier Lottery Frequency Drawing Numbers web page.

 41-42-43-44-45 has the best ratio from its odd-even composition, but the worst ratio from low-high composition. The basic combinatorial analyses contradict one another, just like our previous examples. How should you proceed then?

Here are your choices.

a) Proceed using the combination since one analysis showed it has a favorable ratio.

b) Abandon the idea. The idea is confusing anyway, and it’s a hassle to change combinations then analyze the ratio again.

c) Use advanced combinatorial design and analysis to solve contradictions and conflicts in ratios.

I would not be haughty as to claim that any of these choices is wrong. In all honesty, there is no wrong choice among these three. Yet, understand that every choice you make has a consequence. It is ultimately your decision that will prevail.

Option (a) might be a convenient choice. Yet, do not expect too much from this combination since only one analysis gave it the best ratio.

Option (b) is a handy decision if you are not too convinced that your old ways of playing are not effective. However, reverting to statistics or superstitions is giving up on the opportunity to win using an accurate strategy.

Option (c) is a fresh idea that you might have doubts in using. Nonetheless, it will combine the odd-even and low-high analyses into one solution. This way, your strategy will have no room for conflicts and contradictions.

Let me illustrate and explain more.

Hoosier Ca$h 5 has Lotterycodex Combinatorial Design that includes low-odd, low-even, high-odd and high-even. Low-odd contains 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21,23. Low-even contains 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22. High-odd includes 25,27,29,31,33,35,37,39,41,43,45. High-even comprises 24,26,28,30,32,34,36,38,40,42,44.

This table above is the Lotterycodex advanced combinatorial design. As you can see, the numbers are conveniently arranged into low-odd, low-even, high-odd and high-even.

This relieves you from visually imagining or manually jotting down the 4 sets for basic combinatorial analysis. Thus, right from the start, you have no worries there could be one number left out.

If you choose option (c) for 41-42-43-44-45, it would be clear that this is not a good combination to use at all. It does not matter if it has the best odd-even ratio.

This combination is not worthy of your money, time and effort at all. All its numbers come just from two sets in the advanced combinatorial design.

Our Ca$h 5 example, Eduard’s original combination was 23-25-30-31-36.

Using the advanced combinatorial design table above, you see this is not a combination that could yield favorable results.

The alternative combination we thought Eduard could instead use is 11-13-15-30-36. Yet this also turned out to be a not so good combination to spend money on. The advanced combinatorial design revealed that 11-13-15-30-36 still lacks the crucial balance in composition. This is despite 11-13-15-30-36 having the best odd-even and low-high ratio.

Advanced combinatorial design solves the obvious contradictions and even those conflicts you might not immediately see. From the numbers you selected, Lotterycodex advanced combinatorial analysis will group the possible combinations into good, bad, worst and best options.

This presents an expedient way for you to focus your time, effort and money on the best patterns.

The best Lotterycodex pattern for Hoosier Lottery Ca$h 5 is pattern #1. Patterns #2 to #28 are the middle patterns. The worst patterns are patterns #29 to #56.

This table above shows that a 5/45 game such as Ca$h 5 from Hoosier Lottery has 56 Lotterycodex patterns. Out of all these patterns, only #1 is the best one you could use.

It is important that you know the details associated with these patterns in order to understand why you must focus only on the best pattern.

The pattern # 1 has 144 expected frequencies in 2,000 draws, 360 expected frequencies in 5,000 draws and 14 approximate intervals. Meanwhile, pattern # 11 has 59 expected frequencies in 2,000 draws, 149 expected frequencies in 5,000 draws and 34 approximate intervals. Last, pattern # 32 has 18 expected frequencies in 2,000 draws, 45 expected frequencies in 5,000 draws and 112 approximate intervals.

Pattern #1, from the table above, has 144 expected frequencies in 2,000 draws. It has 360 expected occurrences in 5,000 draws. The approximate interval in between these occurrences is 14. Therefore, pattern # 1 has the ratio of 1 to 14.

Among the middle patterns is pattern #14. In 2,000 draws, you may expect it to occur 54 times with an interval of about 37. Its expected frequency in 5,000 draws is 136. This pattern can give you a ratio of 1 to 37.

Comparing the ratios of patterns #1 and #14 shows us that pattern #1 has almost 3 times better ratio than pattern #14.

Pattern #44 is among the worst patterns. Its expected frequency in 2,000 draws is 6 and expected frequency in 5,000 draws is 16. The ratio of success to failure that pattern #44 offers is 1 to 333.

This means that it would take you 334 attempts before you could get that one opportunity to match the winning combination. You might need to play every day for an entire year and get only one possible winning break.

Meanwhile, pattern #1 could only require 15 attempts to get that winning opportunity. This could mean you may play for a month and possibly match the winning combination twice.

Unfortunately, many players have been using combinations with middle and worst patterns without knowing they are just giving away money. Choosing option (c) every time you play relieves you from this undesirable possibility.

Please read The Winning Lottery Formula Based on Combinatorics and Probability Theory, where I will show you in details how these patterns work.

Think of playing the lottery with advanced combinatorial analysis as if you were using a GPS app.

You enter your destination on the GPS app and it will show you all the possible routes to take. The app will probably suggest which route is the shortest or will take you to the destination the fastest.

Nonetheless, you may still decide which route to take. You could even choose the one that leads you to circles before arriving at the destination.

In the same manner, advanced combinatorial design lets you decide how to play Hoosier Lottery games. You will get the critical information derived from accurate calculation and precise analysis of combinations.

You decide which among the good, bad, worst and best combinations to use in the actual lotto games. The smart and responsible lottery player will settle on the best.

This is true for all applicable games, like Hoosier Lotto +Plus.

Hoosier Lotto +Plus has Lotterycodex Combinatorial Design that includes low-odd, low-even, high-odd and high-even. Low-odd contains 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21,23. Low-even contains 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22. High-odd includes 25,27,29,31,33,35,37,39,41,43,45. High-even comprises 24,26,28,30,32,34,36,38,40,42,44,46.

If Rachelle or her mom had used advanced combinatorial design from the start, they would not have wasted money for 2 years.

25-39-36-34-33-27 is obviously an awful combination, using the table above will reveal. We said that Rachel could have run the random generator again to get another combination like 17-42-45-7-18-30.

This combination might be a good one because it contains numbers from all the groups.

With a 6/46 game like Hoosier Lotto +Plus, there is just 1 best pattern you could use out of 84 Lotterycodex patterns.

There are 84 Lotterycodex patterns for Hoosier Lotto +Plus. Only pattern #1 is the best. Patterns #2 to # 22 are the middle patterns. The worst patterns are #23 to #84.

It is helpful to have the information about the good, bad, worst and best combinations to use. It leads you straight to the best route to take.

Will you use pattern #15 when you know you have just or 1 opportunity in 60 attempts to match the winning combination? Would it not be better to stick to pattern # 1 that can give you a winning chance out of 19 attempts?

Remember that Hoosier Lotto +Plus has only 2 draws per week. Therefore, you could play Hoosier Lottery +Plus twice a week for about 2.5 months and get that chance to win the jackpot.

If you use pattern #15, you might need to play for 8 months before you enjoy that single opportunity to match the winning combination. Which between pattern #1 and #15 do you think is more helpful to use?

Advanced combinatorial analysis is a critical material for developing a mathematical strategy. A mathematical strategy is one that lets you get the best shot there is in a game. This way, you will not waste money for most draws.

You could also take advantage of what advanced combinatorial analysis offers when you play Cash4Life.

Hoosier Lottery Cash4Life has Lotterycodex Combinatorial Design that includes low-odd, low-even, high-odd and high-even. Low-odd contains 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,21,23,25,27,29. Low-even contains 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,30. High-odd includes 31,33,35,37,39,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59. High-even comprises 32,34,36,38,40,42,44,46,48,50,52,54,56,58,60.

The Lotterycodex combinatorial design above would help you in choosing the main combination in Cash4Life.

Albert chose the combination 34-45-47-56-58 that contains the most overdue numbers for the said game. If he referred to advanced combinatorial design before he paid for 10 advance plays for this combination, he could have saved his money and effort.

This combination would not even get through the first step of the process since it lacks adequate representation from all number groups. Someone could have told him to change numbers prior to buying Hoosier Lottery tickets, and a new combination he could have used is 5-7-28-56-58.

However, even this new combination still needs some patching up. The benefit of using advanced combinatorial analysis when creating combinations is that you can see where you lack.

Therefore, prior to marking the numbers on a playslip, you would already know which number to drop, which to replace, and where to improve so that you can achieve the best possible ratio from your combination.

Advanced combinatorial design and analysis help you concentrate on compositions that matter most. This saves time and resources that you could have spent on useless combinations.

With this approach, you could be mathematically correct in selecting the choices that will put you closer to the jackpot. The best choices will bring you closer to winning over time, as dictated by the law of large numbers.

This does not mean you will know the exact numbers that will win next. No one could ever foresee which combination will win in the succeeding games.

Pattern # 1 has 130 expected frequencies in 2,000 draws, 324 expected frequencies in 5,000 draws and 15 approximate intervals. Pattern # 17 has 37 expected frequencies in 2,000 draws, 94 expected frequencies in 5,000 draws and 53 approximate intervals. Pattern # 53 has 1 expected frequency in 2,000 draws, 3 expected frequencies in 5,000 draws and 1819 approximate intervals.

In Cash4Life, for example, one best choice is pattern #1. There are 56 Lotterycodex patterns for this game, and the best ones are patterns #1 to #4.

The best patterns like pattern #1 can bring you close to the jackpot. Attempting to play 16 times will give you an opportunity to match the winning combination.

Pattern #53 could give you this single opportunity once in every 2001 attempts. This could require you to play religiously for 5 years just to have that chance of winning. You have to wait even longer than a leap year to happen.

When you are aware of the circumstances, you could create a strategy to counter undesirable situations. This is the mindset of a perceptive player. He will always choose the best choices that give many winning opportunities and fewer failing possibilities.

A smart player knows how to weigh his chances, so he will choose a Hoosier Lottery game that best favors him.

Which Hoosier Lottery draw game would you choose to play?

All lottery draw games are the same, in a way that they are random and deterministic.

Yet, these games differ from one another in terms of their number field, pick size and odds. Such differences help players make the best choice of which game to choose.

Many players might not pay attention to these factors. They probably just think about possibly winning a huge jackpot prize. Thus, it does not matter what game they play, since they only have one probability to win in any of these games.

Still, it is worth looking at the odds a particular game can offer so that you can pick a game that is easier to play than the others.

A comparison of draw games from Hoosier Lottery. Ca$h 5 has a pick size of 5, number field of 45, 0 extra ball and possible combinations of 1,221,759. Hoosier Lotto +Plus has a pick size of 6, number field of 46, 0 extra ball and possible combinations of 9,366,819. Cash4Life has a pick size of 5, number field of 60, 4 extra balls and possible combinations of 21,846,048. Powerball has a pick size of 5, number field of 69, 26 extra balls and possible combinations of 292,201,338. Mega Millions has a pick size of 5, number field of 70, 25 extra balls and possible combinations of 302,575,350.

The Ca$h 5 game has a pick size of 5 from the number field of 1-45. Thus, the probability to win here is 1 in 1,221,759.

In Hoosier Lotto +Plus, the pick size is 6 from the number field of 1-46. It results to the probability of 1 in 9,366,819. In comparison, Ca$h 5 has 8 times better probability than Hoosier Lotto +Plus.

Cash4Life has a pick size of 5 and the number field is 1-60. If you were to match the 5 winning numbers and the cash ball, your probability of winning is 1 in 21,846,048. 

The extra ball significantly makes a game harder to win, particularly if this ball comes from a separate drum. This makes the probability of Cash4Life 18 times worse than Ca$h 5.

Cash4Life is not the only multi-state lottery game offered by Hoosier Lottery. It also offers Powerball, which is available in 47 other US states and jurisdictions.

This game has a pick size of 5 from the number field of 1-69. The Powerball comes from the choices of 1 to 26. This makes the probability to win in Powerball 1 to 292,201,338. The probability offered by Ca$h 5 is 239 times higher than in Powerball.

Nevertheless, Powerball is a game where combinatorial analysis also applies. You may also analyze the composition to determine your ratio of success to failure from every combinatorial group. To know how you can play this game with a mathematical strategy, pleased read this.

Mega Millions, out of the 5 games in the table is the hardest to win. It is also a multi-state draw game. With a pick size of 5 from numbers 1 to 60 and a Mega ball from 1-25, the probability to win here is 1 to 302,575,350.

You considerably have 248 times easier jackpot to win with Ca$h 5 than with Mega Millions. Still, there combinatorial groups that govern this game. In this article, you will learn what these combinatorial groups are and how you could use them to play games accurately.

To summarize the details in this section, the game with easiest to beat odds is one that has the smallest pick size, number field and total possible combinations.

A game that has bigger jackpot prize might excite you to play since the prize is immense. However, such a game requires you to face some possible compromises. One compromising scenario is that you need to compete with an even higher number of players.

Even those who rarely play the Hoosier Lottery are spending money and falling in long lines to buy tickets. With more competitors, there could be more than one jackpot winner.

If this happens, the winners will share the jackpot prize among themselves. This will only reduce the pot money, which can be equivalent to the starting jackpot.

At any rate, choosing a game from Hoosier Lottery that you will play is a decision you must make. The purpose of comparing these games is for you to know your winning chances in each game.

It is your decision to focus on just one game from Hoosier Lottery. You may also decide to spend your lottery entertainment budget on all these games. Whichever you decide, just make sure you understand the games.

This involves recognizing the concepts governing the game and affecting your winning odds. Keep in mind that random, yet deterministic lotteries work according to the law of large numbers and probability theory.

Probability and law of large numbers rule the lotteries.

You could read the success story of Jeffry Myers, who won $4.9 million in the Hoosier Lotto of Hoosier Lottery. Fervent lottery players will appreciate this tale. It will also inspire the not-so-avid players to just keep on playing and hoping for the auspicious day to come.

Myers has been playing the lottery ever since Hoosier Lottery began in 1988. He plays Ca$h 5 daily and never missed a game of Hoosier Lotto’s twice a week draws.

Hoosier Lotto has a quite colorful history. Hoosier Lottery started offering its very first lotto draw game, the Lotto Cash in April 1990. Four years later, the game was replaced by Hoosier Lotto.

Now, if Myers has been playing Hoosier Lotto since that day, we can assume that he has been playing for about 1,400 weeks. This could mean he has made 2,800 attempts. So far, his unwavering effort made him win the $4.9 million jackpot and a minor prize of $1,000 in the past.

If only all players’ fate is the same as Myers’ fate. Yet, you should not rely solely on fate if you want to win the lottery jackpot. You should also have a precise game plan to adhere to.

Myers’ story proves lottery games will give you more failed instances than winning moments. Remember that he only achieved his goal after doing 2,800 attempts. Would you also follow what Myers did by playing non-stop?

Well, I do not think there is anything wrong with not giving up on your dream to win. However, it would be best if you will play fervently using combinations that are worthwhile to play.

As the law of large numbers dictates, the best combinatorial group will always dominate the game. This will only become apparent as the number of draws increase.

Pattern # 1 is the best pattern in Ca$h 5. With a probability value of 0.0719012506, it can appear 144 times in 2,000 draws at an interval of 14. Among the middle patterns is #14. Its probability value is 0.0272353222 and could occur 54 times in 2,000 draws with interval of 37. One worst pattern is #35. The probability value is 0.0074278151 and could occur 15 times in 2,000 draws at an interval of 135.

Let me show how the best pattern will dominate the game using probability calculations.

Using the figures from the table above,

Pattern #1 has

Expected occurrence (pattern #1) 
= 0.0719012506 x 2,000 
= about 144 occurrences

Out of 2,000 draws, this pattern will occur 144 times at an interval of 14.

Pattern #20 has

Expected occurrence (pattern #20) 
= 0.0178267563 x 2,000 
= about 36 occurrences

From 2,000 draws, pattern # 20 will occur only 36 times at an interval of 56. In comparison, pattern #1 has 4 times more expected occurrences in the same number of draws. Considering the approximate interval, pattern #1 could also let you match the winning combination more frequently.

This does not change, even with more draws.

Expected occurrence (pattern #1) 
= 0.0719012506 x 5,000 
= about 360 occurrences
Expected occurrence (pattern #20) 
= 0.0178267563 x 5,000 
= about 89 occurrences

At 5,000 draws, pattern #1 would still have 4 times more expected occurrences than pattern #20. This shows that the law of large numbers will prevail at infinity. This is the conclusion you need to follow so you will ultimately have the best shot possible.

We made a comparison between the best pattern and a middle pattern. The difference between the best pattern and a worst pattern would convince you further.

Pattern #44

Expected occurrence (pattern #44) 
= 0.0032412284 x 2,000 
= about 6 occurrences
Expected occurrence (pattern #44) 
= 0.0032412284 x 5,000 
= about 16 occurrences

The best pattern has 24 times more possible occurrences in 2,000 draws and 23 times more occurrences in 5,000 draws.

Pattern # 1 is the best pattern in Hoosier Lotto +Plus. With a probability value of 0.0562705439, it can appear 113 times in 2,000 draws at an interval of 18. Among the middle patterns is #19. Its probability value is 0.0155015273 and could occur 31 times in 2,000 draws with interval of 65. One worst pattern is #31. The probability value is 0.0127887600 and could occur 26 times in 2,000 draws at an interval of 78.

You can also expect and observe the same trend in Hoosier Lotto +Plus.

The best pattern, pattern #1 has

Expected occurrence (pattern #1) 
= 0.0562705439 x 2,000 
= about 113 occurrences

The ratio of success to failure offered by pattern #1 is 1 to 18. This means that 19 attempts will, give you an opportunity to match the winning combination.

A middle pattern is pattern #13, and it has

Expected occurrence (pattern #13) 
= 0.0213146000 x 2,000 
= about 43 occurrences

Pattern #1 could occur 3 times more than pattern #13. The pattern #3 has a ratio of 1 to 47 so it might require 48 attempts before you could have the opportunity of winning.

To illustrate the dominance of the best pattern over the worst pattern, let us use pattern #31.

Expected occurrence (pattern #31) 
= 0.0127887600 x 2,000 
= about 26 occurrences

Pattern #31 has 4 times fewer occurrences than pattern #1. With a ratio of 1 to 76, make 77 attempts to have that one chance of winning.

Which would you choose: fewer or more game attempts to get an opportunity to match the winning combination? A practical player will choose a combination that will take him close to the jackpot with fewer attempts.

Pattern # 1 is the best pattern in Cash4Life. With a probability value of 0.0648858778, it can appear 130 times in 2,000 draws at an interval of 15. Among the middle patterns is #17. Its probability value is 0.0187448091 and could occur 37 times in 2,000 draws with interval of 53. One worst pattern is #53. The probability value is 0.0005498477 and could occur once in 2,000 draws at an interval of 1,819.

Through advanced combinatorial analysis, not only could you concentrate on the dominating patterns. You could also time your games based on approximate intervals between occurrences.

Let me just remind you at this moment that the interval is only an approximation. There is no way anyone could determine the exact interval of occurrences. Still, a ballpark figure is still better than nothing.

Albert from our example above paid for 10 advance plays. Choosing the advance play option from a playslip means you will play the same combination for the 10 consecutive draws.

If you play for a combination with pattern #1 in Cash4Life, consider the approximate interval of 15. If the pattern occurred today, it is likely that it will not occur tomorrow or the day after tomorrow.

Instead, it will probably occur after 15 draws. How do you take advantage of this knowledge, then?

Use this to time your games and to save money to buy more tickets.

You may not play during the days you do not expect the best pattern to occur. On such days, save money so that you can buy more tickets the next time you play.

Through combinatorics, probability and law of large numbers, you could access information that leads to a better understanding of a lottery game. You should base your decisions on this crucial information.

Use the Lotterycodex calculator

Do you not wish to deal with complex computations? Then use Lotterycodex calculators to conveniently and accurately apply advanced combinatorial analysis in your lottery games.

Always remember that your tasks as a player include choosing options that will improve your winning chances. Part of these tasks is to avoid choices that will only aggravate your chances of losing.

With this in mind, let me give you a few tips to play better Hoosier Lottery games.

Do superstitions and quick pick improve your games?

Superstitions are part of people’s lives, even in this modern era.

For example, it is Friday the 13th so you do not want to go outside to buy a Hoosier Lottery ticket. Some would also not include the number 13 in their combination because they believe it is unlucky.

There is nothing wrong with following some superstitions like having a coin in your shoes while you buy lottery tickets. You could also buy tickets at a store believed to be lucky. However, do not let these false beliefs gravely affect your games.

In our example, you skipped playing on Friday the 13th because you thought it will be dangerous to go outside. However, what if the day you skipped is the day when your pattern will give you the opportunity to win?

You did not include the number 13 in your combination because of its misconception of luck. Yet, how would you feel when this is the only number you did not match from the winning combination? Remember that there are no lucky and unlucky numbers in the lottery.

The law of large numbers dictates that all numbers will converge around the same frequency when there are many draws.

Superstitions are things that some people respect because it is part of their culture. Yet, do not let misconceptions cloud your logic and judgment.

You should also not get easily swayed by people who say that you can have the best games when you use Quick Pick combinations. As written on the web page of each draw game from Hoosier Lottery, Quick Pick is the option if you prefer random selection.

You allow the machine to pick your combination. It merely picks the numbers based on a random computer algorithm. The machine assigns numbers on your ticket with no analysis of its odd, even low and high number values.

Quick pick and random selection is an easy way to play, but also one that follows no plan or strategy.

Although some people win in lottery games with quick pick selections, it does not mean that you too will have the same happy story. The combination from the machine will assign on your ticket might have the worse ratio of success to failure.

It is not advisable to use Quick Pick if you want to play better games. To play better means to know what your choices are, then decide on one that has the best odds to offer.

The best way to play is still trough the use of applicable mathematical approach and solutions. These solutions are combinatorics and probability that give more intuitive information that will complete a game plan.

An intuitive player would rather select combinations according to the odds offered by combinatorial groups instead of wishing on a lucky star. There can be millions of possible combinations in a lottery game.

The number of awful combinations is greater than the favorable combinations. Through advanced combinatorial analysis, you will know which combinations are worth the money you spend.

This approach might not make him an instant millionaire in the next draw. Yet, it makes him a knowledgeable player taking control of his decisions to play and odds to win.

You can always choose any combination you wish to play, but always choose the ones that will help you lose less and win more.

It surely is tempting play with unusual combinations for fun, as if you are testing how lucky you could be. However, do not forget that all combinations have compositions affecting their ratio of success to failure.

Should you rely on strokes of luck in lotteries?

Some players just have strokes of luck in lotteries. This make you wonder, “When will I experience the same?”

While I could not help you find an answer to this question, I could help explain the reason behind coincidences and strange winning combinations in the lottery.

First, let me show you some examples of non-random combinations in Hoosier Lottery games.

There are many non-random combinations in the Ca$h 5 game. Some have easily noticeable patterns, like 5-10-15-20-25 and 1-2-3-4-5. Others have not easily noticeable patterns like 27-30-31-32-35 and 4-6-9-13-18.

Non-random combinations are those that players create using a pattern different from the combinatorial group patterns we discussed above.

Many players use consecutive patterns like 1-2-3-4-5. It could be because these numbers are easy to remember or because they create a pattern on the playslip.

In Ca$h 5, for example, the table above shows that 5-10-15-20-25 is one non-random combination in lotteries. This combination contains numbers in multiple of 5. This is the second most popular combination from lotto players, according to same article for the multiples of 7 above.

Hoosier Lotto +Plus have many non-random combinations. 2-4-6-8-10-12 and 11-12-13-14-15-16 have patterns you can easily notice. 21-22-28-32-33-36 and 25-31-36-40-43-45 are non-random combinations with patterns you cannot easily notice.

The consecutive pattern also has variations other than the skip counting or multiples of certain numbers.

Take, for instance, 1-2-11-12-21-22. This combination contains 2 consecutive numbers from three number groups. 1 and 2 are from the group 1-10. 11 and 12 are from the group 11-20. 21 and 22 are from the group 21-30.

A combination may also take 3 consecutive numbers from 2 number groups. An example is 1-2-3-11-12-13. 1, 2 and 3 are from the number group 1-10. 11, 12 and 13 are from the group 11-20.

30-38-45-51-56 and 35-42-48-53-57 are examples of non-random combinations with not easily recognizable patterns in Cash4Life. 1-2-11-12-21-22 and 1-2-3-12 are examples of combinations with easily recognizable patterns.

Some non-random combinations have patterns that may take you a while to notice, such as 5-8-11-14-17. This combination follows an interval of three in between numbers.

5-8-11-14-17 differs from the 3-6-9-12-15 although both have an interval of 3 in between their numbers. We can more appropriately describe the latter combination as having multiples of 3.

Another non-random combination with not easily noticeable pattern is 4-6-9-13-18. The interval in between the numbers are 2,3, 4 and 5.

It is amusing to observe the patterns of these non-random combinations in the lottery. Yet, we know that the odds of these combinations still rely on their odd-even and low-high compositions.

So, what odds do these unusual and non-random combinations provide you?

1-2-3-4-5 has best odd-even ratio, but worst low-odd ratio. The same analyses apply to 5-10-15-20-25, and 1-2-11-12-21-22.

You could use the Lotterycodex combinatorial design for 1-2-3-11-12-13. Yet, you would not even get through the first step because this combination only has numbers from two number sets.  5-8-11-14-17 and 4-6-9-13-18 would also not pass the advanced combinatorial analysis.

These analyses only prove that these non-random and unusual combinations offer very unfavorable odds to players.

Still, why do they win in lotteries?

The law of truly large numbers explains this. According to this law, coincidences and strange happenings occur when there are many opportunities. In lotteries, strange combinations win when there plenty of draws held.

From the tables above, on sample probability calculations, you see that even the worst patterns are bound to occur. This can happen when plenty of attempts or draws have been made.

Knowing that very low chances of occurrences for these unusual combinations, would you still insist on using them? If you want a positive experience from your Hoosier Lottery gaming, then you probably would not.

Always play Hoosier Lottery for a positive experience.

Hoosier Lottery promotes positive experiences from playing the games it offers. It wants players to enjoy the entertainment and fun from the games.

“Understand the odds.”

You now understand that odds are as crucial to consider as probability when playing the lottery.

You may have just one probability to win, but you can choose the combinations that give best ratio of success to failure. This does not mean that you will know, for certain, the numbers that will win in the next draws. This is an impossible feat to accomplish, but don’t lose hope yet.

What the odds or ratio of success to failure presents is the opportunity for players to know their choices. This awareness will help them make decisions for making the most out of their money and game experiences.

“Set time limit”

Advanced combinatorial analysis help players know the patterns that will help them have fewer mistakes and achieve more winnings. It also hands over critical information on the ideal time to play.

Remember the approximate interval in between occurrences? Players could refer to this information to set their play time and schedule their games well.

“Set money limit.”

Players need to play lottery games based on a certain budget only. Hoosier Lottery and other state lotteries suggest this to their players. This is one way to play responsibly and positively.

As a solo player, you can buy only a few tickets. Yet, the way to have more winning probabilities is to buy more tickets. When it comes to lottery entertainment budget, understand that there are ways to optimize your budget.

Consider starting a small lottery syndicate. Invite your relatives, friends and acquaintances to pool your money together so you can buy more tickets. Whatever prize your tickets win, you share it among the members of your small lotto syndicate.

You may also join other bigger and more established lottery syndicates if you have what the group requires. Nonetheless, whether you play solo or with a syndicate, play with worthwhile combinations. A solo player or a lottery syndicate will only waste lottery budget by playing combinations with the worst ratios of success to failure.

“It’s hard to get back what you had.”

Hoosier Lottery compared gambling losses to a too short haircut that is difficult to get back. You must not forget that lottery is a negative game.

Losses are inevitable in this entertainment, and losses are way greater than winnings. Remember the story of Myers who won the jackpot after playing for 30 years? It would be good if you share the same fervor in playing with him.

However, not all players have the unlimited source of patience and perseverance. Some players try to chase their losses by investing on more tickets. Instead of this, why not invest your money in another facet of the lotto industry?

When people hear about lottery games, the first thing they think is playing and buying tickets. However, the lottery is also an industry. If you did not find fulfillment as a player, then it’s time to discover the inverse lotto strategy.

This strategy will show you a different perspective on taking part in the lottery industry. Why not open up a business that could also retail Hoosier Lottery tickets and products? Hoosier Lottery retail partners enjoy some great benefits.

Perhaps you could offer to buy other people’s lottery tickets for a minimal service fee? This way, you could also finance your own tickets from the fees you collect.

Chasing losses by gambling more is definitely not a good idea. Therefore, try to recover what you lost by becoming a lottery ticket peddler.

Playing lotteries must always be a positive experience. It should be about having fun and feeling entertained. Find the fun and entertainment by minimizing your losses and maximizing your chances to win.

Never think of lotteries as a substitute for a real job, unless you are a lotto ticket retailer. Play the lottery responsibly. This requires playing lotteries on a set budget and time limit.

Spend money that you can afford to lose. There are other more important things to spend your money on, like home rental, food and utility services.

It is good to play lottery games now and then, but do not allow it to develop into a compulsion. Otherwise, it could turn the positive experience into a negative ordeal.

Choose your games wisely and play them cleverly.

Other entertaining games from Hoosier Lottery

There are other draw games from Hoosier Lottery that you could play responsibly. These are Daily 3, Daily 4, and Quick Draw with Bullseye.

There are also Scratch-offs or scratch cards you can buy for yourself or give as a gift to others.

The Fast Play Games are those that you can print directly from Hoosier Lottery terminals. These games do not require filling out playslips or waiting for draws.

Do not throw away non-winning tickets yet. You could still enter them into the 2nd chance promotions from Hoosier Lottery. Whichever game you choose, play with a smart and responsible mindset to always have a positive gaming experience.

2021 NAND Flash Updates from ISSCC: The Leaning Towers of TLC and QLC

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The annual IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference covers a range of topics of interest to AnandTech. Every year the conference includes a session on non-volatile memories where most of the NAND flash memory manufacturers share technical details of their latest developments. At the conference we get more information than these companies are usually willing to share in press briefings, and the presentations are usually about technology that will be hitting the market during the coming year.

At ISSCC 2021 this week, four of the six major 3D NAND flash memory manufacturers are presenting their newest 3D NAND technology. Samsung, SK hynix and Kioxia (+Western Digital) are sharing their latest 3D TLC NAND designs and Intel is presenting their 144-layer 3D QLC NAND. Not participating this year are Micron (who announced their 176L 3D NAND late last year) and Chinese newcomer YMTC.

3D TLC (3-bit per cell) Updates

Samsung, SK hynix, and Kioxia/WD presented information about their upcoming generations of 3D TLC. Not shown here is Micron's 176L TLC, because they haven't released most of this data for their latest generation of 3D NAND.

3D TLC NAND Flash Memory
ISSCC Presentations
  Samsung SK hynix Kioxia (Toshiba)
WD
Year Presented at ISSCC 2021 2019 2021 2021 2019 2018
Layers   128 176 >170 128 96
Die Capacity 512 Gb 512 Gb 512 Gb 1 Tb 512 Gb 512 Gb
Die Size (mm2)   101.58   98 66 86
Density (Gbit/mm2) 8.5 5 10.8 10.4 7.8 5.95
IO Speed 2.0 Gb/s 1.2 Gb/s 1.6 Gb/s 2.0 Gb/s 1.066 Gb/s 533 Mb/s
Program Throughput 184 MB/s 82 MB/s 168 MB/s 160 MB/s 132 MB/s 57 MB/s
Read Latency (tR) 40 µs 45 µs 50 µs 50 µs 56 µs 58 µs
Erase Block Size         24 MB 18 MB
Planes 4? 2 4 4 4 2
CuA / PuC Yes No Yes Yes Yes No

Unsurprisingly, it looks likely that Samsung will again be in the lead for performance, with the lowest read latency and fastest write speeds. However, their bit density is still clearly lagging even though they're claiming a 70% jump with this generation. In the past, their lagging density hasn't been as much of a downside as it might appear at first glance, because Samsung has been able to avoid using string stacking and can manufacture a stack of 128 layers as a single deck while their competitors have all had to split their stack into two decks, increasing the number of fab steps required. This might be the generation that brings Samsung's inevitable adoption of string stacking, but if that's the case then their lingering density disadvantage is rather disappointing. On the other hand, if they've managed to put off that transition for one more generation and achieved this kind of density increase only using a combination of other techniques (most notably a CMOS under Array layout), then it's a very impressive advance and it would be safe to say that Samsung is years ahead of the competition when it comes to the high aspect ratio etching of the vertical channels that is the most critical fab step in scaling 3D NAND. We'll know more once Samsung discloses the actual layer count, but they're keeping that secret for now—which hints that they don't expect to have the highest layer count to brag about.

The TLC parts described by SK hynix and Kioxia/WD look fairly similar, save for the big difference that SK hynix is talking about a 512Gb die and Kioxia is talking about a 1Tb die. Both designs look to have similar performance and density, though Kioxia is touting a higher NAND interface speed. Kioxia and Western Digital have put out a press release announcing 162-layer 3D NAND, so they're a bit behind SK hynix and Micron for total layer count. That press release also mentions a 10% improvement in the horizontal density of their cell array, so Kioxia and Western Digital are probably packing the vertical channels closer together than any of their competitors.

3D QLC (4-bit per cell) Updates

The only company with updates this year on QLC is Intel.

3D QLC NAND Flash Memory
ISSCC Presentations
  Intel Samsung SK hynix Kioxia
WD
Year Presented at ISSCC 2021 2020 2020 2018 2020 2019
Layers 144 96 92 64 96 96
Die Capacity 1 Tb 1 Tb 1 Tb 1 Tb 1 Tb 1.33 Tb
Die Size (mm2) 74.0 114.6 136 182 122 158.4
Density (Gbit/mm2) 13.8 8.9 7.53 5.63 8.4 8.5
IO Speed 1.2 Gb/s 800 Mb/s 1.2 Gb/s 1.0 Gb/s 800 Mb/s 800 Mb/s
Program Throughput 40 MB/s 31.5 MB/s 18 MB/s 12 MB/s 30 MB/s 9.3 MB/s
Program Latency (tPROG) 1630 µs 2080 µs 2 ms 3 ms 2.15 ms 3380 µs
Read Latency
(tR)
Avg 85 µs 90 µs 110 µs 145 µs 170 µs 160 µs
Max 128 µs 168 µs       165 µs
Erase Block Size 48 MB 96 MB   16 MB 24 MB 24 MB
Planes 4 4 2 2 4 2

In general, Intel has been more focused on QLC NAND than any of its competitors. This 144L QLC is the first generation of 3D NAND Intel hasn't co-developed with Micron, and it is unique in several respects. Intel is taking its 3D NAND technology in different directions from the rest of the industry will have interesting ramifications for their agreement to sell the NAND flash business to SK hynix, but in the short term it seems like Intel is getting the NAND they want to be selling. With only 144 layers, Intel is almost certainly now in the last place for total layer count. Compared to 9x-layer QLC, Intel has much better performance and density—but QLC versions of the new TLC described by SK hynix and Kioxia should have comparable density. Intel has backed off from the frankly astronomical erase block size their 96L QLC used, but the 48MB block size of their new 144L QLC still seems a bit high.

CMOS Under Array From Everyone

Intel and Micron's now-dissolved joint venture was the second NAND flash manufacturer to make the switch to 3D NAND, after Samsung. The most significant innovation the Intel/Micron 3D NAND brought to the industry was the CMOS Under the Array (CuA) design. This places most of the NAND die's peripheral circuitry—page buffers, sense amplifiers, charge pumps, etc.—under the vertical stack of memory cells instead of alongside.

This change saves a big chunk of die space and allows for over 90% of the die area to be used for the memory cell array. SK hynix was next to make this switch, which they call "Periphery under Cell" (PuC). The rest of the manufacturers are now also onboard: Kioxia (then Toshiba) and Western Digital presented a 128-layer CuA design at ISSCC 2019 but their fifth generation BiCS 3D NAND ended up going into production as a 112L design without CuA. Their ISSCC presentation this year is for a "170+" layer design with CuA, and they've put out a press release confirming that their sixth generation BiCS 3D NAND will be a 162-layer design with CuA.

Aside from saving die space, a CuA/PuC style design for 3D NAND allows for a die to include more peripheral circuitry than would otherwise be cost-effective. This makes it practical to divide a die's memory array into more separate planes, each with their own copies of much of the peripheral circuitry. Most 3D NAND that has been built without a CuA layout has used just two planes per die, but now that everyone is using CuA the standard is four planes per die. This provides extra parallelism that increases the performance per die and offsets the overall SSD performance drop that usually comes from using fewer dies to reach the same total capacity.

A CuA structure is not without its challenges and downsides. When a manufacturer first switches to CuA they get a big increase in available die space for peripheral circuitry. But after that, each successive generation that adds layers means there's less die space available for managing the same number of memory cells, so peripheral circuitry still has to shrink. Putting peripheral circuitry under the memory cell array also introduces new constraints. For example, Samsung's ISSCC presentation this year mentions the challenges of constructing large capacitors for the charge pumps when they can no longer use the tall metal structures that are simple to include alongside the 3D NAND stack.

Better On-Die Parallelism: Four Planes Per Die

Dividing a NAND flash die into four planes allows for the die to handle more operations in parallel, but doesn't make it behave quite like four independent dies. There are restrictions on what can be done in parallel: for example, simultaneous writes still have to go to the same word line within each plane. But as the number of planes in a flash die grows, manufacturers have been working to loosen some of those restrictions. In previous years, manufacturers have introduced *independent* multi-plane reads, meaning simultaneous reads in different planes don't have any restrictions on the locations within each plane that are being read—a big win for random read throughput.

Now, another restriction on multi-plane operations is being relaxed: the timing of read operations in different planes doesn't need to line up. This makes it possible for one plane to perform multiple reads from SLC pages while another plane is performing a single slower read from TLC or QLC pages. This capability is called Asynchronous Independent (Multi-)Plane Read. The practical effect is that for read operations, a large 4-plane die can now match the performance of four smaller 1-plane dies. This mitigates many of the performance downsides that higher per-die capacity brings to SSDs that only have one or two dies per channel.

Kioxia and WD reported that implementing this capability required them to stop sharing charge pumps between planes, in order to avoid poorly-timed voltage and current fluctuations that would have resulted from unsynchronized read operations. Intel is also halfway to this capability with their 4-plane 144L QLC: planes are paired up into plane groups, and each plane group can perform reads without needing to align with the timing of reads in the other plane group.

 

NAND IO Speeds Outpacing SSD Controller Support

The new TLC NAND parts described at ISSCC support IO speeds ranging from 1.6 to 2.0 Gb/s for communication between the NAND flash dies and the SSD controller. The fastest NAND in SSDs currently on the market runs at 1.2-1.4Gb/s. The NAND manufacturers can benefit from vertical integration by ensuring that their own SSD controller designs used for their own SSDs will be ready to support these higher IO speeds, but other SSD vendors that rely on third-party controllers may be left behind. Phison's latest E18 8-channel controller for high-end PCIe 4.0 SSDs only supports 1.2Gb/s IO speeds, and their upcoming E21T 4-channel NVMe controller supports 1.6Gb/s. Silicon Motion's 8-channel SM2264 and 4-channel SM2267 support 1.6Gb/s and 1.2Gb/s IO speeds respectively.

 

Since 8 channels running at 1.2Gb/s is already enough for a SSD to saturate a PCIe 4.0 x4 connection, these new higher IO speeds will not be of much use to high-end SSDs until PCIe 5.0 arrives. But more affordable 4-channel consumer SSD controllers will be able to use these higher speeds to move up well into PCIe 4.0 performance territory, matching or exceeding the throughput that the first PCIe 4.0 SSD controller (Phison E16, 8ch @ 800Mb/s) offered. As demonstrated by drives like the SK hynix Gold P31, an advanced 4-channel controller supporting high IO speeds on each channel can be very competitive on performance while operating with far higher power efficiency than 8-channel controllers.

Hitting these higher IO speeds requires major upgrades to the interface logic on the NAND dies, and as we've seen with other high-speed interfaces like PCI Express, increasing power consumption is a major concern. Samsung is addressing this by using dual-mode drivers and termination. When higher drive strength is needed because of more load on the bus (from more dies per channel), the'll use a PMOS transistor for pull-up, and otherwise they can use a NMOS transistor and cut the power consumption of the driver by more than half. This gives Samsung a single interface design that will work well for both small consumer SSDs and large enterprise drives with many more dies per channel. (In the past Samsung has added separate retimer dies to multi-chip packages that stack lots of NAND dies together on the same one or two channels. We're not sure if Samsung is still using this technique.)

 

String Stacking: First Triple-Deck NAND

String stacking has been viewed as something of a necessary evil for scaling up 3D NAND to higher layer counts. Only Samsung has managed to build more than 100 layers of 3D NAND at a time, and everyone else has long since switched to stacking two decks each with a more reasonable layer count. This means that eg. Micron's 176-layer 3D NAND is built as 88 layers of memory cells, then another 88 layers are constructed on top. This drives up cost compared to doing all the layers at once, and it requires careful alignment at the interface between decks. But the alternative would be to make the vertical channels much wider, so that the aspect ratio (width vs depth) would stay within the realm of what can be feasibly etched by current fab techniques.

Intel's 144L QLC design includes the surprise that they are already moving to a 3-deck stack: 48+48+48 layers rather than the 72+72 we would expect. Since their previous generation is a 48+48 layer (96L total) design, it's possible that they have changed very little about how the memory array itself is fabricated aside from repeating the same sequence of deposition, etch and fill steps a third time. Intel is taking a hit on fab throughput with this approach, but it probably helps them better control the variation in channel and cell dimensions from the top to bottom of the stack, which may be more of a concern given their focus on QLC and their unique decision to still use a floating gate memory cell rather than switching to a charge trap cell like everyone else.

To go along with this triple-deck structure, Intel has reorganized how they handle erase blocks, and now each of the three decks constitutes a separate collection of erase blocks. That means the middle third of a 144L string can now be erased without interfering with the data stored in the other two thirds of the string. Dividing blocks by decks is also how Intel was able to reduce the 96 MB block size with their 96L QLC down to a less extreme 48MB block size.

 

A Small Caveat about Academic Conferences

It's important to understand that ISSCC, where these updates are presented, is an academic conference. The presentations are not product announcements and the papers are not product spec sheets. The designs presented at ISSCC don't always match what goes into mass production. For example, Kioxia/WD in the past have presented designs for 128L and "170+" layer NAND, but their actual fifth and sixth generation BiCS NAND as mass produced are 112L and 162L designs. They also, despite mentioning it in their 2019 talk, deferred a switch to a more dense 'CMOS under Array (CuA) structure' to a later product line.  Specifications such as write performance are also often presented as best-case, and real world products end up being a notch below what is presented.

Despite the coming together of all these companies under one conference, even when the presentation does match the eventual product, what we learn from ISSCC is usually imperfect and incomplete information. The companies are inconsistent about what metrics they report, and we usually get information for only one die design per generation—a company might present their 512Gbit design even if they're planning to manufacture both 512Gbit and 256Gbit parts. In recent years several companies seem to be alternating between talking about their QLC one year and TLC the next. In spite of all of that, ISSCC presentations on 3D NAND are still a great way to gauge how the state of the art has progressed and where the industry as a whole is headed.

About half the content of these presentations is clever schemes for micromanaging voltages applied to various wires to optimize the read, program and erase processes. There are complex tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, wear and other factors. we're not going to dig into all of these details, other than to say that programming a cell to the desired voltage (and without disturbing other cells) is not a simple process, and even reading from a TLC or QLC cell is quite a bit more complicated than reading from a DRAM or SRAM cell. We're more interested in any major structural changes in the dies themselves, and the end results of all the finessing of voltages: the speeds at which a page of memory can be read or programmed.

Source Material: 68th ISSCC, Feb 13-22nd 2021

10 kisah karir dan keterampilan IT teratas tahun 2021

Undian terbaik Keluaran SGP 2020 – 2021. Prize harian yang lain muncul dipandang dengan terjadwal melalui notifikasi yang kami letakkan di situs tersebut, lalu juga bisa dichat pada layanan LiveChat pendukung kita yg siaga 24 jam On the internet untuk meladeni segala kepentingan para pengunjung. Ayo langsung daftar, serta dapatkan prize Lotre dan Live Casino On the internet tergede yang wujud di lokasi kami.

Ketika pandemi berlanjut hingga tahun 2021, teknologi menjadi bagian yang lebih penting dari bisnis dan kehidupan, membuat pekerja teknologi sangat berharga.

Di mana 2020 melihat jeda dalam perekrutan dan pengeluaran, 2021 sangat terfokus pada keterampilan dan bakat teknologi karena semakin jelas bahwa cara kerja baru, jarak jauh, dan digital kemungkinan akan berlanjut setelah pandemi berlalu.

Namun kesenjangan keterampilan masih membayangi, baik pada tingkat yang lebih teknis maupun dalam hal dasar – tahun ini difokuskan untuk memberi orang keterampilan yang diperlukan untuk mengisi pekerjaan dan menavigasi kehidupan sehari-hari yang lebih berfokus pada digital.

1. Hampir setengah dari perusahaan yang ingin merekrut pekerja teknologi

Tahun dimulai dengan perusahaan teknologi berebut untuk mempekerjakan staf teknologi, dengan penelitian oleh TechUK dan CWJobs menemukan 45% perusahaan teknologi memiliki peran teknologi untuk diisi.

Sementara awal pandemi melihat penurunan perekrutan, kebutuhan akan bakat teknologi ini merupakan kelanjutan dari akhir tahun 2020 di mana perusahaan mulai menyadari betapa membantu adopsi teknologi selama penguncian awal Covid-19.

Ini berlanjut hingga akhir tahun, menurut perusahaan Robert Half, yang menemukan perekrutan untuk peran teknologi akan meningkat selama tahun depan karena pandemi menyoroti pentingnya bakat teknologi.

2. Hampir 80.000 lebih peran teknologi diisi pada akhir 2020 dibandingkan dengan akhir 2019

Analisis data Kantor Statistik Nasional (ONS) menemukan peningkatan signifikan jumlah orang yang bekerja di bidang teknologi pada kuartal terakhir tahun 2020 dibandingkan dengan waktu yang sama tahun sebelumnya.

Dengan 80.000 lebih banyak peran teknologi yang diisi pada tahun 2020 daripada pada tahun 2019, dan banyak peran ditambahkan ke sektor ini selama pandemi, Bev White, kepala eksekutif Harvey Nash Group, menjelaskan bahwa sementara beberapa sektor terpukul keras oleh pandemi, teknologi masih membuktikan dirinya. menjadi “pencipta lapangan kerja yang berkelanjutan”.

Hal ini dapat terjadi, sebagian, karena ketergantungan yang tinggi pada teknologi selama pandemi untuk memastikan semua karyawan dapat terus bekerja dari rumah, serta meningkatnya penggunaan layanan online dan digital untuk menjaga dunia terus berdetak selama Covid-19 wabah.

3. Kaum muda tidak merasa memiliki keterampilan digital yang canggih untuk bekerja

Meskipun penciptaan lapangan kerja meningkat dan perekrutan dalam industri teknologi selama setahun terakhir, kesenjangan keterampilan TI Inggris tetap ada.

Upaya besar telah dilakukan dalam beberapa tahun terakhir untuk memastikan kaum muda memiliki keterampilan digital yang dibutuhkan untuk masa depan pekerjaan, tetapi banyak kaum muda masih tidak yakin bahwa mereka memiliki lebih banyak keterampilan teknis yang dibutuhkan untuk peran dalam industri teknologi.

Penelitian oleh Learning and Work Institute, dalam kemitraan dengan Enginuity dan WorldSkills UK, menemukan bahwa sebagian besar anak muda mengetahui bahwa keterampilan digital akan penting untuk karir masa depan mereka, tetapi hanya 18% yang merasa memiliki keterampilan teknologi yang lebih maju yang mungkin dibutuhkan oleh pemberi kerja dari mereka.

4. Jumlah siswa yang mengambil komputasi A-level meningkat pada tahun 2021

Tahun ini melihat tahun pertumbuhan lain untuk penyerapan komputasi A-level di Inggris, dengan peningkatan 1.401 peserta dibandingkan dengan tahun 2020.

Sekali lagi, ujian di Inggris dibatalkan demi kriteria penilaian yang berbeda, meskipun hasilnya tidak menimbulkan kegemparan seperti pada tahun 2020.

Jumlah anak perempuan yang mengambil subjek tetap rendah jika dibandingkan dengan jumlah anak laki-laki, dan dalam hal menghitung peserta GCSE, jumlah anak perempuan yang mengambil subjek sebenarnya turun pada tahun 2021.

5. Apakah sektor teknologi menghadapi eksodus keterampilan TI?

Pandemi membuat banyak orang, baik di dalam maupun di luar sektor teknologi, berpikir tentang apa yang sebenarnya mereka inginkan dari hidup dan karier mereka, terutama ketika terbukti bahwa orang tidak perlu harus ngumpul di kantor untuk menghasilkan pekerjaan yang berkualitas.

Sejumlah besar pekerja teknologi saat ini berpikir untuk mengubah peran atau berpindah perusahaan, sementara menurut angka dari CWJobs sekitar 8% dari mereka di industri ingin keluar dari sektor teknologi sama sekali.

Pandemi mungkin juga menjadi alasan di balik pilihan ini, dengan penelitian oleh konsultan rekrutmen Hays Technology mengutip jam kerja yang panjang dan bekerja selama hari libur sebagai alasan untuk mencari padang rumput baru.

6. Iklan pekerjaan teknologi meningkat di luar gelembung London

Tahun lalu tidak hanya melihat peningkatan kebutuhan akan bakat teknologi, tetapi juga lebih banyak peran teknologi yang diiklankan di luar gelembung London.

Ketika pandemi memaksa banyak bisnis untuk mengizinkan karyawan mereka bekerja dari rumah secara massal, orang-orang mulai menyadari bahwa tidak perlu lagi berkumpul di dalam dan di sekitar ibu kota. Penelitian oleh Tech Nation dan Dewan Ekonomi Digital Departemen Digital, Budaya, Media dan Olahraga menemukan kota-kota lain di Inggris memiliki permintaan yang tinggi akan bakat teknologi.

Di Edinburgh, 30% lowongan pekerjaan adalah untuk peran teknologi, diikuti oleh Reading, di mana 29% dari peran yang diiklankan adalah di bidang teknologi, dan Glasgow, di mana 28% lowongan pekerjaan adalah untuk peran digital.

7. IBM berjanji untuk melatih kembali 30 juta orang pada tahun 2030

Kolaborasi telah lama disebut-sebut sebagai salah satu cara terbaik untuk mengembangkan keterampilan digital masyarakat, dan raksasa teknologi IBM mengumumkan pada tahun 2021 akan bermitra dengan penyedia pendidikan, departemen pemerintah, dan organisasi lain di 30 negara untuk memberi 30 juta orang di seluruh dunia berbasis teknologi baru. keterampilan pada tahun 2030.

Ketika menjelaskan alasan di balik rencana untuk memberikan inisiatif keterampilan digital skala besar, ketua dan CEO IBM Arvind Krishna mengatakan: “Bakat ada di mana-mana – peluang pelatihan tidak. Inilah sebabnya mengapa kita harus mengambil langkah besar dan berani untuk memperluas akses ke keterampilan digital dan peluang kerja sehingga lebih banyak orang – terlepas dari latar belakang mereka – dapat memanfaatkan ekonomi digital.”

8. Reaksi teknologi terhadap janji keterampilan Anggaran

Saat tahun memasuki kuartal terakhir, pemerintah menyusun rencana pengeluarannya untuk tahun-tahun mendatang, dengan rektor menteri keuangan Rishi Sunak menjanjikan hampir £5 miliar yang didedikasikan untuk membalikkan efek pandemi pada pendidikan, dan £3,8 miliar lebih lanjut untuk mengembangkan keterampilan. di seluruh Inggris, tidak hanya untuk mereka yang berusia sekolah, tetapi juga untuk memastikan pembelajaran sepanjang hayat bagi orang dewasa.

Pengumuman diterima dengan baik oleh komunitas teknologi, tetapi konsensus di antara mereka di sektor ini adalah bahwa meskipun ini adalah langkah pertama yang baik untuk diambil, masih banyak yang harus dilakukan.

Russ Shaw, pendiri Tech London Advocates dan Global Tech Advocates, mengatakan: “Penting untuk dicatat bahwa ini bukan peluru perak dan pemerintah perlu bekerja lebih erat dengan penyedia pendidikan dan sektor swasta untuk mengatasi masalah lain yang menyebabkan kekurangan keterampilan.”

9. Tiga perempat pengambil keputusan TI global menghadapi kesenjangan keterampilan

Terlepas dari semua pekerjaan yang dilakukan sepanjang tahun untuk menutup kesenjangan keterampilan, para pemimpin TI masih tidak dapat menemukan pekerja terampil yang mereka butuhkan untuk mengisi peran digital mereka yang kosong.

Menjelang akhir tahun, penelitian oleh Skillsoft menemukan tiga perempat pemimpin TI di seluruh dunia menghadapi kesenjangan keterampilan kritis di dalam departemen mereka.

Lebih buruk lagi, penelitian oleh Boston Consulting Group juga menemukan sejumlah besar pekerja TI memiliki rencana untuk pindah pekerjaan dalam tiga tahun ke depan, dengan banyak yang ingin pindah sesegera mungkin.

10. Langkah apa yang bisa kita ambil untuk akhirnya menutup kesenjangan keterampilan teknologi?

Bahkan dengan inisiatif dari penyedia pendidikan, pengusaha dan pemerintah, kesenjangan keterampilan teknologi Inggris masih tetap ada.

Pada tahun 2021, Cath Everett melihat beberapa inisiatif yang saat ini ada untuk meningkatkan keterampilan teknologi, arah lanskap keterampilan teknologi, dan apakah saat ini cukup banyak yang dilakukan untuk menyediakan bakat yang dibutuhkan industri dalam waktu dekat dan seterusnya.

Performa Tinggi Ekstrim pada Tegangan Tinggi

Undian terbaik Keluaran SGP 2020 – 2021. Diskon harian lain-lain tersedia dilihat dengan terpola melewati berita yg kami lampirkan pada website itu, lalu juga bisa dichat terhadap layanan LiveChat support kami yang siaga 24 jam On-line untuk melayani semua kepentingan para pemain. Lanjut langsung sign-up, dan kenakan diskon Togel serta Live Casino On-line terbaik yg ada di tempat kami.

TSMC minggu ini mengumumkan proses fabrikasi baru yang dirancang khusus untuk produk komputasi kinerja tinggi (HPC). N4X berjanji untuk menggabungkan kerapatan transistor dan aturan desain node keluarga N5 TSMC dengan kemampuan untuk menggerakkan chip pada tegangan ekstra tinggi untuk frekuensi yang lebih tinggi, yang akan sangat berguna untuk CPU server dan SoC. Menariknya, N4X TSMC berpotensi mengaktifkan frekuensi yang lebih tinggi daripada proses N3 generasi berikutnya.

Salah satu masalah yang disebabkan oleh menyusutnya ukuran transistor adalah menyusutnya ukuran kontaknya, yang berarti peningkatan resistansi kontak dan masalah konsekuen dengan pengiriman daya. Berbagai produsen menggunakan cara yang berbeda untuk mengatasi masalah resistensi kontak: Intel menggunakan kontak kobalt daripada kontak tungsten, sedangkan pembuat lain memilih untuk membentuk kontak menggunakan teknologi deposisi tungsten selektif. Sementara metode ini bekerja dengan sempurna untuk hampir semua jenis chip, masih ada cara untuk lebih meningkatkan pengiriman daya untuk desain komputasi kinerja tinggi (HPC), yang relatif tidak sopan tentang total daya/tegangan yang digunakan. Inilah yang dilakukan TSMC pada node N4X-nya. Namun sebelum kita melanjutkan ke detail tentang proses fabrikasi baru, mari kita lihat keunggulan apa yang dijanjikan TSMC dengannya.

TSMC mengklaim bahwa node N4X-nya dapat mengaktifkan hingga 15% clock lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan sirkuit serupa yang dibuat menggunakan N5 serta frekuensi hingga 4% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan IC yang diproduksi menggunakan node N4P-nya saat berjalan pada 1.2V. Lebih jauh lagi – dan tampaknya lebih penting – N4X dapat mencapai tegangan penggerak melebihi 1.2V untuk mendapatkan clock yang lebih tinggi. Untuk memasukkan angka ke dalam konteks: SoC keluarga M1 Apple yang dibuat di N5 berjalan pada 3,20 GHz, tetapi jika SoC ini diproduksi menggunakan N4X, maka menggunakan matematika TSMC mereka secara teoritis dapat didorong ke sekitar 3,70 GHz atau pada frekuensi yang lebih tinggi pada tegangan di luar 1.2V.

TSMC tidak membandingkan kerapatan transistor N4X dengan anggota keluarga N5 lainnya, tetapi biasanya prosesor dan SoC untuk aplikasi HPC tidak dirancang menggunakan pustaka kepadatan tinggi. Untuk daya, tegangan penggerak lebih dari 1.2V secara alami akan meningkatkan konsumsi daya dibandingkan dengan chip yang diproduksi menggunakan node kelas N5 lainnya, tetapi karena node dirancang untuk aplikasi HPC/pusat data, fokusnya adalah untuk memberikan kinerja setinggi mungkin dengan daya kekhawatiran sekunder. Faktanya, konsumsi daya total telah meningkat pada GPU kelas HPC dan suku cadang serupa selama beberapa generasi terakhir sekarang, dan tidak ada tanda bahwa ini akan berhenti dalam beberapa generasi produk berikutnya, sebagian berkat N4X.

“HPC sekarang adalah segmen bisnis yang tumbuh paling cepat di TSMC dan kami bangga memperkenalkan N4X, yang pertama dalam garis ‘X’ dari teknologi semikonduktor kinerja ekstrem kami,” kata Dr. Kevin Zhang, wakil presiden senior Pengembangan Bisnis di TSMC. “Tuntutan segmen HPC tak henti-hentinya, dan TSMC tidak hanya menyesuaikan teknologi semikonduktor ‘X’ kami untuk menghasilkan kinerja terbaik, tetapi juga menggabungkannya dengan teknologi pengemasan canggih 3DFabric kami untuk menawarkan platform HPC terbaik.”

Peningkatan PPA yang Diiklankan dari Teknologi Proses Baru
Data diumumkan selama panggilan konferensi, acara, konferensi pers, dan siaran pers
TSMC
N5
vs
N7
N5P
vs
N5
N5HPC
vs
N5
N4
vs
N5
N4P
vs
N5
N4P
vs
N4
N4X
vs
N5
N4X
vs
N4P
N3
vs
N5
Kekuatan -30% -10% ? lebih rendah -22% ? ? -25-30%
Pertunjukan +15% +5% +7% lebih tinggi +11% +6% +15%
atau
lagi
+4%
atau lebih
+10-15%
Area Logika

% pengurangan

(Kepadatan)

0,55x

-45%

(1.8x)

0,94x

-6%

1.06x

0,94x

-6%

1.06x

?

?

0,58x

-42%

(1.7x)

Volume
Manufaktur
Q2 2020 2021 Q2 2022 2022 2023 H2 2022 H1
2024?
H1 2024? H2 2022

Dalam upaya untuk meningkatkan kinerja dan memungkinkan tegangan penggerak lebih dari 1.2V, TSMC harus mengembangkan seluruh tumpukan proses.

  • Pertama, ia mendesain ulang transistor FinFET dan mengoptimalkannya untuk clock tinggi dan arus penggerak tinggi, yang mungkin berarti mengurangi resistansi dan kapasitansi parasit dan meningkatkan aliran arus melalui saluran. Kami tidak tahu apakah itu harus meningkatkan jarak pitch gerbang-ke-gerbang dan pada titik ini TSMC tidak mengatakan apa sebenarnya yang dilakukannya dan bagaimana hal itu mempengaruhi kepadatan transistor.
  • Kedua, memperkenalkan kapasitor logam-isolator-logam (MiM) kepadatan tinggi baru untuk pengiriman daya yang stabil di bawah beban ekstrem.
  • Ketiga, ia mendesain ulang tumpukan logam back-end-of-line untuk memberikan lebih banyak daya ke transistor. Sekali lagi, kita tidak tahu bagaimana ini mempengaruhi kepadatan transistor dan akhirnya ukuran mati.

Untuk sebagian besar, Intel memperkenalkan peningkatan serupa pada teknologi proses 10nm Enhanced SuperFin (sekarang disebut Intel 7), yang tidak mengejutkan karena ini adalah metode alami untuk meningkatkan potensi frekuensi.

Yang spektakuler adalah seberapa signifikan TSMC berhasil meningkatkan potensi kecepatan clock dari teknologi N5-nya dari waktu ke waktu. Peningkatan 15% menempatkan N4X mendekati teknologi fabrikasi N3 generasi berikutnya. Sementara itu, dengan tegangan drive di atas 1.2V, node ini sebenarnya akan mengaktifkan clock yang lebih tinggi daripada N3, membuatnya sangat baik untuk CPU pusat data.

TSMC mengatakan bahwa mengharapkan desain N4X pertama untuk memasuki produksi berisiko pada paruh pertama tahun 2023, yang merupakan deskripsi waktu yang sangat kabur, karena bisa berarti sangat akhir 2022 atau awal 2023. Bagaimanapun, biasanya dibutuhkan satu tahun untuk chip untuk melanjutkan dari produksi berisiko ke iterasi produksi volume tinggi, jadi masuk akal untuk mengharapkan desain N4X pertama memasuki pasar pada awal 2024. Ini mungkin merupakan kelemahan N4X karena pada saat N3-nya akan sepenuhnya ditingkatkan dan sementara N4X menjanjikan keunggulan dalam hal jam, N3 akan memiliki keunggulan besar dalam hal kerapatan transistor.

Sumber: TSMC

FTC Amerika Serikat Mengajukan Gugatan untuk Memblokir Akuisisi NVIDIA-Arm

Hadiah mingguan Keluaran SGP 2020 – 2021. Permainan terbaru lain-lain ada diamati dengan terstruktur via poster yang kita letakkan di website tersebut, serta juga siap ditanyakan pada teknisi LiveChat support kita yang stanby 24 jam Online buat melayani semua kepentingan antara tamu. Lanjut buruan daftar, serta ambil cashback Undian dan Live Casino Online tergede yg tersedia di web kami.

Dalam hambatan terbesar untuk akuisisi Arm yang diusulkan NVIDIA, Komisi Perdagangan Federal Amerika Serikat (FTC) telah mengumumkan sore ini bahwa badan pengawas akan menuntut untuk memblokir merger. Mengutip kekhawatiran atas kesepakatan “menahan saluran inovasi untuk teknologi generasi berikutnya”, FTC bergerak untuk membatalkan kesepakatan $ 40 miliar untuk melindungi kepentingan pasar yang lebih luas.

Kesepakatan dengan pemilik Arm saat ini, SoftBank, pertama kali diumumkan pada September 2020, di mana pada saat itu SoftBank telah berbelanja Arm di sekitar dalam upaya untuk menjual atau memisahkan perusahaan IP teknologi. Dan sementara NVIDIA menandatangani kesepakatan dengan optimisme bullish tentang kemampuan untuk menutupnya tanpa terlalu banyak kesulitan, perusahaan sejak itu menghadapi tantangan politik yang lebih besar dari yang diharapkan karena industri yang luas dan ketidaknyamanan peraturan dengan pembuat chip tunggal yang memiliki pemasok IP yang digunakan oleh ratusan pembuat chip lainnya. FTC, pada gilirannya, adalah badan pengatur terbaru dan paling kuat yang bergerak untuk menyelidiki kesepakatan – memberikan suara 4-0 untuk mengajukan gugatan – setelah Uni Eropa membuka penyelidikan terhadap merger awal musim gugur ini. NS

Sementara keluhan penuh FTC belum dirilis, menurut siaran pers yang dikeluarkan oleh agensi sebelumnya hari ini, inti dari kekhawatiran FTC berkisar pada keuntungan atas pembuat chip lain yang akan diperoleh NVIDIA dari memiliki Arm, dan potensi pelanggaran. dan tindakan tidak adil lainnya terhadap pesaing yang juga mengandalkan IP Arm. Secara khusus, FTC menyatakan bahwa “Teknologi masa depan bergantung pada pelestarian pasar chip mutakhir yang kompetitif saat ini. Kesepakatan yang diusulkan ini akan mendistorsi insentif Arm di pasar chip dan memungkinkan perusahaan gabungan untuk secara tidak adil melemahkan saingan Nvidia.”

Untuk itu, keluhan FTC terutama berfokus pada kategori produk di mana NVIDIA telah menjual perangkat keras berbasis Arm mereka sendiri. Ini termasuk Sistem Bantuan Pengemudi Tingkat Lanjut (ADAS) untuk mobil, Unit Pemrosesan Data (DPU) dan SmartNIC, dan, tentu saja, CPU berbasis Arm untuk server. Ini semua adalah area di mana NVIDIA merupakan pesaing aktif, dan seperti yang diyakini oleh FTC, akan memberikan insentif bagi NVIDIA untuk terlibat dalam persaingan tidak sehat.

Yang lebih menarik, mungkin, adalah kekhawatiran terakhir FTC tentang akuisisi Arm: bahwa kesepakatan itu akan memberikan NVIDIA akses ke “informasi sensitif persaingan dari pemegang lisensi Arm”, yang kemudian dapat disalahgunakan NVIDIA untuk keuntungan mereka sendiri. Karena banyak pelanggan/pemegang lisensi Arm secara langsung bergantung pada desain inti Arm (bukan hanya melisensikan arsitektur), mereka juga bergantung pada Arm untuk menambahkan fitur dan membuat perubahan lain yang mereka perlukan untuk produk generasi mendatang. Akibatnya, pelanggan Arm secara teratur membagikan apa yang dianggap informasi sensitif dengan perusahaan, yang menurut FTC dapat disalahgunakan oleh NVIDIA untuk merugikan saingan, seperti dengan menahan pengembangan fitur yang dibutuhkan pelanggan saingan ini.

NVIDIA, pada gilirannya, telah mengumumkan bahwa mereka akan melawan gugatan FTC, dengan menyatakan bahwa “Saat kami melangkah ke langkah berikutnya dalam proses FTC, kami akan terus bekerja untuk menunjukkan bahwa transaksi ini akan menguntungkan industri dan mendorong persaingan.”

Pada akhirnya, bahkan jika NVIDIA berhasil mempertahankan akuisisi dan mengalahkan gugatan FTC, pengumuman hari ini berarti bahwa akuisisi Arm sekarang telah mundur setidaknya beberapa bulan. Uji coba administratif NVIDIA baru dijadwalkan akan dimulai pada 9 Agustus 2022, hampir setengah tahun setelah NVIDIA awalnya mengharapkan kesepakatan untuk ditutup. Dan pada titik ini, tidak jelas berapa lama persidangan akan berlangsung – dan berapa lama waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat putusan.

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Regulator Uni Eropa Membuka Probe Ke Akuisisi NVIDIA-Arm

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Menyusul periode regulasi yang panjang dengan ketidakpastian mengenai rencana akuisisi Arm oleh NVIDIA, cabang eksekutif Uni Eropa, Komisi Eropa, telah mengumumkan bahwa mereka telah membuka penyelidikan resmi atas kesepakatan tersebut. Mengutip kekhawatiran tentang persaingan dan pentingnya Arm’s IP, Komisi telah memulai proses peninjauan 90 hari untuk merger untuk menentukan apakah kekhawatiran tersebut dibenarkan, dan dengan demikian apakah merger harus diubah atau diblokir seluruhnya. Mengingat jendela 90 hari, Komisi memiliki waktu hingga 15 Maretth tahun 2022 untuk menerbitkan keputusan.

Pada tingkat tinggi, kekhawatiran EC bergantung pada fakta bahwa Arm adalah pemasok IP untuk NVIDIA dan pesaingnya. Yang membuat EC khawatir tentang apakah NVIDIA akan menggunakan kepemilikannya atas Arm untuk membatasi atau sebaliknya menurunkan akses pesaing ke IP Arm. Ini dilihat sebagai skenario yang sangat mengkhawatirkan mengingat luasnya kategori perangkat yang digunakan chip Arm – mulai dari pemanggang roti hingga pusat data. Selain itu, EC juga akan memeriksa apakah merger tersebut dapat menyebabkan NVIDIA memprioritaskan R&D IP yang banyak digunakan NVIDIA (misalnya CPU pusat data) sehingga merugikan jenis IP lain yang digunakan oleh pelanggan lain.

Perlu dicatat bahwa ini akan menjadi jenis tinjauan yang sedikit berbeda dari biasanya untuk EC. Karena NVIDIA dan Arm bukanlah pesaing – sesuatu yang bahkan dicatat oleh EC – ini bukanlah merger kompetitif yang khas. Sebaliknya, penyelidikan akan menjadi semua tentang efek hilir dari pemasok utama yang juga menjadi pesaing.

Secara keseluruhan, kebutuhan akan tinjauan tidak terlalu mengejutkan. Mengingat ruang lingkup kesepakatan $40 miliar, jumlah pelanggan Arm (hampir semua orang), dan jumlah negara yang terlibat (hampir semua orang lagi), selalu ada peluang bagus bahwa kesepakatan itu dapat diselidiki oleh satu atau lebih negara. . Namun, penyelidikan Komisi Eropa berarti bahwa, bahkan jika disetujui, kesepakatan itu hampir pasti tidak akan selesai pada bulan Maret seperti yang direncanakan sebelumnya.

“Semikonduktor ada di mana-mana dalam produk dan perangkat yang kita gunakan sehari-hari serta di infrastruktur seperti pusat data. Meskipun Arm dan NVIDIA tidak bersaing secara langsung, IP Arm merupakan input penting dalam produk yang bersaing dengan NVIDIA, misalnya di pusat data, otomotif dan di Internet of Things. Analisis kami menunjukkan bahwa akuisisi Arm oleh NVIDIA dapat menyebabkan akses terbatas atau menurun ke IP Arm, dengan efek distorsi di banyak pasar tempat semikonduktor digunakan. Investigasi kami bertujuan untuk memastikan bahwa perusahaan yang aktif di Eropa terus memiliki akses efektif ke teknologi yang diperlukan untuk menghasilkan produk semikonduktor tercanggih dengan harga bersaing.”
Wakil Presiden Eksekutif Margrethe Vestager